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Ex 

Libris 
BEATRIX 
FARRAND 




REEF POINT GARDENS 
LIBRARY 



The Gift of Beatrix Farrand 

to the General Library 
University of California, Berkeley 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 



To me . . . he stands essentially as a genius loci. It 
is impossible to separate his spare form and old straw 
hat from the garden in the lap of the hill, with its 
rocks overgrown with clematis, its shadowy walks, 
and the splendid breadth of champaign that one saw 
from the north-west corner. The gardenand gardener 
seem part and parcel of each other. 

"An Old Scotch Gardener" 

(ROBERT Louis STEVENSON in 

" Memories and Portraits.") 



A gardener is Scotch, as a French teacher is 
Parisian. 

(GEORGE ELIOT in 

"AdamBede") 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

TOGETHER WITH 

THE GARD'NERS KALENDAR 

BY 

JOHN ,REID 



EDITED BY 

ALFRED H. HYATT 




WITH AN APPRECIATION BY 

THE EARL OF ROSEBERY 



T. N. FOULIS 

23 BEDFORD STREET, LONDON, 
W.C.; AND AT EDINBURGH. 1907 



Idd f l 

LANDSCAPE 
ARCHITECTURE 



2697 

APPRECIATION 



THE RT. HON. THE EARL OF ROSEBERY, 

If I might parody what I saw was said by an Irish 
Judge, lately deceased, it is that, " / yield to no one 
in ignorance of scientific horticulture." lam not sure 
that this is not one of the cases in which the ignorant 
have almost the best of it. I admit that, when I walk 
with an expert through a garden, I feel an ignorance, 
a humiliation, which is almost abysmal. But I recol- 
lect, after all, that I may be the happier of the two. 
The expert knows all the weaknesses and all the short- 
comings in his garden. A she shows you his hothouses 
he is stung by the recollection of superior hothouses 
belonging to a rival ; as he shows you his fruits he 
remembers other fruits which have defeated him at 
an horticultural show, and he is ahvays haunted by 
the recollection of the orchids which he does not possess. 
On the other hand, the ignoramus walks blandly 
along enjoying without cavil the simple beauty of 
the flowers, enjoying what Lord Bacon has so finely 
called their breath, en joy ing all their per fume and all 
the variety which a garden can give without question 
and ivithout afterthought. If he sees a weed which 
would distress the expert, if he sees groundsel growing 



430 



APPRECIATION 

^vhereit should notgroiv, he thinks only of his canary; 
and as for orchids, when he asks his soul and his con- 
science, he infinitely prefers a sweet pea. This, then, 
if lam right, is one of the cases so finely summed up 
by the poet when he says : 

" Where ignorance is bliss, 

'Tis folly to be wise" 

A nd, indeed, one does not covet the wisdom of the expert 
when he reels out those long Latinnames, in false and 
barbarous Latin, of the various plants that you ad- 
mire names which he sometimes remembers, but, if 
I am not wrong, more often invents and which the 
ignoramus, like myself, only listens to with pitying 
wonder that a science so beautiful as horticulture 
should be bound up with such technical terms. There 
is another way in which we ignorant people can en- 
joy gardens. There is the literature of horticulture. 
Publishers, I believe, will tell you that there is nothing 
that pays so well as a book on gardens. But the books 
that I love best on gardens were published at a time 
vvhen one may safely say that publishers did not 
care whether they brought in a profit or not. There 
is, for example, Lord Bacons essays, containing one 
exquisite essay on gardening which sums up in a 
sentence the best that can be said of gardening : 

vi 



APPRECIATION 

" God Almighty first planted a garden. And, indeed, 
it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the greatest 
refreshment to the spirits of man, without which, 
buildings and palaces are but gross handiworks." 
Well, you can say nothing better of gardens than that. 
But I take up another book, written by an author not 
nearly so well known as Lord Bacon, but one who has 
a homely interest for ourselves. He is Mr John Reid, 
who published a book in the reign of Charles II., which 
is called The Scots Gard'ner. It is a delightful book 
to read, perhaps even more delightful for those who 
know nothing about the subject than for those who 
do. I strongly recommend anyone to turn up this 
old book of Mr John Reid's, published in 1683. He 
tells you all about the Scottish garden of that time, he 
tells you all about the kitchen garden, and the pleasure 
garden, and, what I think he attached more import- 
ance to than anything, the physic garden where he 
grew those medicinal herbs in which, I fear, we have 
come to lose some confidence. How many of those 
herbs are now growing in Scottish gardens, and what 
benefits are to be anticipated from them ? These are : 
garden rue, golden rod, feverfew, vernain, celandine, 
wormwood, comfrey, Solomons seal, callamint, mas- 
terwort, ivall pellitory, garden germander, betony, 

vii 



APPRECIATION 

camomile, swalloxv- wort, southernwood, lovage, dwarf 
elder, hart's tongue, maidenhair, asrum, dogwort, 
birthwort, horehound, spignell, bears-breech, sea 
holly, madder, rhubarb, dog mercury, angelica, scurvy 
grass, blessed thistle, tobacco, stinking arag, oak of 
Jerusalem, and so forth. I might indefinitely pro- 
long the list. What then I say is this, that we ig- 
noramuses who know very little about it, can derive 
a pure pleasure, not merely from the contemplation 
of gardens, but from the reading of books about them. 
When people are very much wearied by business, I 
do not know of a better recipe to cheer and soothe their 
minds than by taking up one or two books. One is a 
book about gardens, which, if you shut your eyes after 
reading it, enables you to see the picture before you, 
and to lull yourself with imaginary sights and im- 
aginary scents. Let me give you a passage out of Lord 
Bacons essay which will illustrate what I mean. He 
says this : " For the heath, which was the third part 
of our plot, I wished it to be framed as much as may 
be to a natural wildness. Trees I would have none 
in it, but some thickets made only of sweetbrier and 
honeysuckle, and some wild vines amongst ; and the 
ground set with violets, strawberries, and primroses. 
For these are sweet andproperin the shade. A nd these 

viii 



APPRECIATION 

are to be in the heath, here and there,not in any order. 
Hike also little heaps in the nature of molehills (such 
as are in wild heaths) to be set, some with wild thyme, 
some with pinks, some with germander that gives a 
good flower to the eye ; some with periwinkle, some 
with violets, some tvith strawberries, some with cows- 
lips, some with daisies, some with red roses, some 
with lilium convallium, some with sweet-williams 
red, some with bears foot, and the like low flowers, 
being withal sweet and sightly." Now, after you read 
that and shut your eyes, can you not picture that 
wild heath before you ? Can you not derive from the 
imagination a sense of enjoyment from that printed 
page ? If you cannot, I think you should be able to, 
and that in our short Scottish winter days we should 
from the literature of gardens be able to conjure up 
something of our own summer delights. 



EDITOR'S NOTE 

The Scottish gardener is well known to be pre-emi- 
nent in all things relating to the art of " floristry " 
and horticulture. This valuable and practical little 
treatise, The Scots Gardner, by John Reid, was 
published at Edinburgh in 1683. In his book he sets 
forth in the plainest and homeliest way his idea 
as to what a model house should be, and how the 
garden, both profitable and pleasant, should be 
arranged. Explicit in every detail, and exact in 
each matter of procedure, John Reid takes those 
whom he would instruct step by step from the 
initial moment of planning a new house to the 
formation of the garden, and still further on to 
the matured pleasance. 

I give on the opposite page a facsimile of the 
title-page of the book as originally issued. 

In the second edition of the volume published in 
1756, and edited by "an eminent hand," we are 
told that our author was gardener to Sir George 
Mackenzie of Rosehaugh. The gardens of this 
mansion, situated at Avoch, Ross-shire, were at 
this latter date noted for their beauty. We are 
informed in the pages of a contemporary topo- 
graphical dictionary of Scotland that " Rosehaugh 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 



THE FIRST OF CONTRIVING AND PLANTING 

GARDENS, ORCHARDS, AVENUES, 
GROVES 

WITH NEW AND PROFITABLE WAYES OF LEVELLING ; AND 
HOW TO MEASURE AND DIVIDE LAND 

THE SECOND OF THE PROPAGATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF 

FORREST AND FRUIT-TREES, KITCHEN 
HEARBES AND FRUITS 

WITH SOME PHYSIC ALL HEARBES, SHRUBS, AND FLOWERS 

APPENDIX SHOWING 
HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 

WHEREUNTO IS ADDED 

THE GARD'NERS KALENDAR 

PUBLISHED FOR THE CLIMATE OF SCOTLAND BY 

JOHN REID, GARD'NER 



EDINBURGH: PRINTED BY DAVID LINDSAY AND HIS 
PARTNERS, AT THE FOOT OF HERIOT'S BRIDGE, 1683 



EDITOR S NOTE 

House is surrounded with extensive plantations 
and well-cultivated grounds." Their beauty was 
probably due to the care bestowed upon them by 
the untiring efforts of this wise old gardener. 

We must return to the old authors of gardening 
books, such, for instance, as the work before us, if, 
to quote Bacon's well-known words, we would know 
" the true pleasure of a garden." 

The Scots Gard'nerwas published fifty years after 
Parkinson's ever-delightful Paradisi in Sole, Para- 
disus Terrestris, and, in many ways, the charms of 
both books are similar. In the case of John Reid, 
we must not be too exact about fine writing, and 
forgive him for his faulty syntax. The following 
pages stand as originally written ; only in a few 
places have grammatical errors been remedied. 

My thanks are due to Lord Rosebery for so kindly 
allowing me to add his appreciation of the book 
which was embodied in a speech made by him in 
Waverley Market, Edinburgh, September 1901. 

To what he has already said it would be super- 
fluous for me to add further words in praise of 
The Scots Gardner. 

ALFRED H. HYATT. 

Autumn 1906. 



TO ALL 

THE INGENIOUS PLANTERS 

IN 

SCOTLAND 

/ desire you to peruse this book, for there are many 
things in it of singular use, which I could never find 
in any, and the substance of what I could find ma- 
terial (in the practical part of gardnery) improven 
and apply ed home ; whereby I presume it may be 
satisfactory to you, when you operate in the choice 
of husbandry. Several weighty reasons induced me 
hereunto; as, the great necessity of right contrivance, 
whereby you may do your works both orderly and 
cheap; the in-expressible need of inclosing and plant- 
ing, whereby you may improve your estates to the 
best advantage, both for profit and pleasure. And 
because the many books on gardnery are for other 
countries and climates, and many things in them 
more speculative thanpractical : this ensuing treatise 
the rather be acceptable ; albeit obnoodous to the un- 
doubted censure of criticks, yet when I reflect on my 
innocency in the design therein (the good of my 
country), I receive encouragement. And that my 
endeavours may prove successful, is the earnest 
desire of JOHN REID. 



THE CONTENTS 

OF THE FIRST PART, WHICH TREATS OF 

CONTRIVANCE 

CHAPTER I 

HOW TO MAKE THE WORKS ABOUT A HOUSE 
REGULAR 

PAGE 

1. The Introduction. 2. The model of a house. 3. The 
foundation of contriving. 4. To find the central line. 5. 
Example by a draught, how to place the works. 6. What 
to do where confined or limited .... 3 

CHAPTER II 
HOW TO MAKE AVENUES AND WALKES 

1. Some generals anent walkes. 2. How to stake out the 
avenue. 3. How to run a walk through a wood. 4. What 
to do over hills and great distances. 5. To set off paralles 
where obstructions are. 6. Figures for avenues to end in, 
lead to, and pass through. 7. The distance of trees in walkes 9 

CHAPTER III 
HOW TO PLANT THICKETS AND ORCHARDS 

1. How they should stand by the fence. 2. Of the several 
figures that will admit of order. 3. Of the several wayes of 

xiv 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

planting. 4. The first way squair. 5. The second rom- 
busoical. 6. The third triangular. 7. A fourth depending 
on the first. 8. A fifth and notable way. 9. A sixth way 
observing the central line. 10. The distance of trees in 
thickets and orchards . . . . .17 

CHAPTER IV 
HOW TO MAKE THE KITCHEN-GARDEN 

1. The methode and draught. 2. The proportion and 
order of planting and sowing therein. 3. Of uniformity to 
be observed. 4. A place for physik hearbs. 5. Of walls, and 
of the distance of dwarff and wall-trees . . .29 

CHAPTER V 

HOW TO MAKE THE PLEASURE-GARDEN 
1. What draught I fancy best. 2. Of boxing for all gar- 
dens. 3. Of the proportion of walks. 4. To lay grass. 5. Of 
brick walls. 6. To lay gravel. 7. The orderly wayes of 
planting flowers. 8. Of terrase walks. 9. Of pondes . 36 

CHAPTER VI 
HOW TO LEVEL GROUND 

1. Of the horizontal and sloping level. 2. To proportion 
the level to the ground. 3. How to do with bad-lying plots. 
4. How to level great lengthes. 5. How to do over obstruc- 
tions. 6. Of the solidity of earth. 7. A practice which is 
the cheapest way. 8. To bring water in pipes . . 45 

xv 



THE CONTENTS 

OF THE SECOND PART, WHICH TREATS OF 

THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

CHAPTER I 
OF THE SEVERAL WAYES OF PROPAGATION 

PAGE 

1. The Introduction. 2. The several waves are : 3. First 
by seeds. 4. Secondly by off-sets. 5. Thirdly by cuttings. 
6. Fourthly by laying. 7. Fifthly by circumposition. 
8. Sixthly by graffing. 9. Lastly by inoculation. 10. Of 
planting, pruning, &c. . . . . .61 

CHAPTER II 
HOW TO CULTIVATE AND PREPARE GROUNDS 

1. Of trenching. 2. Of fallowing. 3. Several wayes of 
improving land. 4. Of the best and worst soyls, and how 
to enrich them. 5. What manures are proper for the soyls. 
6. What sorts are proper for plants. 7. How to make hot- 
beds. 8. Of watering ..... 79 

CHAPTER III 
HOW TO PROPAGATE AND ORDER FORREST-TREES 

1. How to govern them in seminary and nurserie. 2. 
When their seeds are ripe, when to sow, in what soyl, when 
they spring, &c. 3. How to transplant out forrest-trees. 
4. How to prune them . . . . .92 

xvi 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV 
OF HEDGES AND INCLOSURES 

PAGE 

1. What I esteem best for hedges. 2. How to plant and 
keep holly hedges. 3. How to plant and keep hawthorn. 
4. How to make ditches. 5. How to have trees round for 
shelter. 6. Of fencing the quicks from beasts . .109 

CHAPTER V 
HOW TO PEOP AGATE AND ORDER FRUIT-TREES 

1. Observations on grafting, &c. 2. What soyl they 
delight in, and how propagated. 3. To raise stocks and 
govern young trees in seminary and nurserie. 4. How to 
transplant out fruit-trees. 5. How to prune both wall and 
standard. 6. To prevent and cure the diseases of all trees. 
7. To destroy vermin, &c. . . . . .114 

CHAPTER VI 
OF FRUITS, HEARBS, AND ROOTS FOR THE KITCHEN 

1. Of the fruits of smaller plants. 2. Of sallads and pot- 
hearbs. 3. Of sweet hearbs. 4. Of roots. 5. Of weeding 
in general ....... 134 

CHAPTER VII 
OF SOME PHYSICK-HERBES, SHRUBS, AND FLOWERS 

1. Physick hearbs distinguished into perennials and 
annuals. 2. Shrubs distinguished into dry and green. 
3. Flowers into fibrous, bulbous, and annuals. 4. How to 
preserve the tender sorts in winter . . .150 

xvii 



CONTENTS 

APPENDIX 
HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 

PAGE 

1. The manner and season of gathering them. 2. How to 
preserve them when gathered. 3. Of their uses. 4. How 
we may have dishes of them. 5. To choice their species for 
our plantations . . . . . .163 

CONCLUSION 
Proposing Scotland's improvement . . .179 

THE GARD'NERS KALENDAR 

Shewing each moneth 

When to performe the particulars, &c. What garden 
dishes and drinks are in season . .183 



THE FIRST PART 

TREATING OF 

CONTRIVANCE 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

CHAPTER I 

HOW TO MAKE THE WORKS ABOUT A HOUSE 
REGULAR 

As the sun is the centre of this world ; as the heart 
of man is the centre of man ; as the nose is the centre 
of the face ; and as it is unseemly to see a man want- 
ing a leg, one arme, &c., or his nose standing at one 
side the face, or not streight, or wanting a cheek, 
ane eye, ane ear, or with one (or all of them) great 
at one side and small on the other ; just so with 
the house-courts, avenues, gardens, orchards, &c., 
where regularity or uniformity is not observed. 

My designe, by contrivance, is to prevent the con- 
sequences of inadvertency, or the abrupt procedure 
in inclosing and planting. Here in the entrance you 
may take a view of a house which I have invented. 
It is but little, yet very commodious and cheap. 
There are only four rooms on a floor (you may have 
closets within the wall), all of which have their 
entry from the stayr (yet communication betwixt), 
and the door is in the middle ; and there are ten 
steps up to the first story (which is hall or dining- 

3 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

room, withdra wing-room, bed-chamber, and wait- 
ing-room), and ten steps to the lower story, which 
is half under ground and vaulted, this is the kitchen, 
cellars, larders, &c. That above the dining-room 
story may be bed-chambers, library, and with- 
drawing-room ; and above these you may have gar- 
rets for wardrops. The roof may be divided into 
three, so as the middle part may be flat and covered 
with lead, and the two sides more steep and slated. 
There is also a stayr coming down from the hall to 
the parterre of grass and gravel, on whose corners 
are two pavilions, opening without the line of the 
house, and set off in place of jammes ; one of which 
may be a store-house, the other a dove-house : the 
stables, baking and brewing-house are on the op- 
posite side most conveniently situated. 

Situate your house in a healthy soyl, near to a 
fresh spring, defended from the impetuous west 
winds, northern colds, and eastern blasts: andmind 
regularity, viz., make all the buildings and plant- 
ings ly so about the house, as that the house may 
be the centre ; all the walks, trees, and hedges run- 
ning to the house. Therefore, whatever you have 
on the one hand, make as much, of the same forme 
and in the same place, on the other. But if you 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

would go to work right, beginne orderly, that is, 
find the central line, by erecting a perpendicular 
on the middle of the house-front, to extend as f arr, 
both back and fore, as requisite : hence you may 
draw parallels, measure and stake out your aven- 
ues, gardens, etc., as you please ; ever minding to 
measure alike at both sides of the central line. How 
to find this central line, and to set off parallels, is 
taught elsewhere. 

Yet for further illustration of this, take ane ex- 
ample by a draught of my own inventing (fig. 2), 
which, if rightly understood, may be applyed di- 
versly and improven elegantly. 

It is here a small scale. The house is in the centre, 
and at B : round by the house are ballisters : the 
common avenue is by N, and ends in a triangle. 
C is the outer court ; and in the two triangular 
courts marked with O, are placed the office-houses 
most notably (with their back part to the court, 
C), opening without the line of the house. So dis- 
mounting at the gate of the court (through which 
you may walk on foot to the house), let the horses 
be taken to the stables by the way the ending of 
the avenue leads. The two plots, P, may be pondes ; 
the two with G, cherrie gardens ; a proper place 

5 




PLAN I. SITUATION OF THE HOUSE AND GAKDENS. 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

also for raising gooseberries, currants, and stra- 
berries. On the south side of the house there is the 
pleasure or flower garden, called the parterre ; at 
the two sydes thereof, kitchen-gardens, marked 
with K, then another walk ending in a semicircle, 
8, leading out to the lawn or deer-park. The vistaes, 
or walks of view, that run from the four angles 
of the house, are very pleasant and convenient, 
and are good shelter, for which cause there are two 
thickets on the north side, marked T ; on the south 
side are two such marked A, for nurseries ; and at 
east and west are two orchards. The whole is en- 
vironed with two rowes of f orrest trees without 
the wall. And if the paper were large, I would show 
you that the park- wall should be parallel to these, 
that is, every where equi-distant from the house 
as its centre at least, the whole an octagon near to 
a regular polygon, consisting of equal sides and 
angles. The walks with their fences (being run fore- 
ward from all the four sides and four angles of the 
house, till they touch at the middle of each side 
of the park-wall) serve in the park for divisors, 
which divisors may be hawthorn hedges, and these 
in the gardens holly ; except the court in the entrie 
and office-house courts, methinks walls are requi- 

7 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

site there. There should also be an ascent to the 
house (if possible) ; as, at the first court-gate, two 
steps : at the second, four steps, &c. But leaving it 
to every man to apply as his ground and ability will 
best admit, I come to speake of regularity, where 
confined. But as work or to make regularity among 
conferments requires ingenuity, so is tethered diffi- 
culty in teaching the same because of the great 
variety of places, which it is hardly possible to cor- 
rect by precepts. Therefore, to what I have said 
above of the centre and central line, I shall only add 
one single instance. 

In a confined situation of ground, I add what I 
can, but diminish nothing : I take a survey of the 
works, and when I find several regular and irregu- 
lar things done on one side of the house, and no- 
thing correspondent on the other, I mark out the 
very same on the opposite side: and this I continue 
to do, till two irregularities produce one uniformity. 
Or, should an avenue lead obliquely to the house, 
on account of a precipice on the west, I immediately 
view the ground from the top of the house, and find 
that, by turning my face towards the east, I shall 
have stately avenues, with gardens on each hand, 
at pleasure. 

8 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 
CHAPTER II 

HOW TO MAKE AVENUES AND WALKES 

ALL walkes should front the gates or entries, 
whether they lead to a house, garden, gate, door, 
park, wood, or high- way. When you have deter- 
mined on the end of your walk, as the door of the 
house in the middle of the house-front, set off a 
perpendicular to find the central line, as aforesaid, 
and for your more exact performance, prepare the 
following instrument, viz., take two straight rules 
of three or four foot long ; joyn them crosswayes 
one another, so that the four angles where they 
cut maybe exact squares ; then at each side of these 
joyn a straight piece of wood, standing up about 
four or five inches ; and in the exact middle of each 
of these pieces, make a slit or hole quite thro', and 
in these put a piece of small silk threed ; place the 
cross on the top of the three-footed staff, with a 
plummet, whereby you may plant it horizontally 
upon occasion : on this likeways place your pro- 
tractor, with the box and needle, when you intend 
to survey ground. 

As to the avenue, set one side of your cross parallel 
to the given line (the house-wall) ; this you may do 
with great ease, by taking one end thereof within 

9 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

the door, till the side touch your cheeks, and you 
may also view across by the side-wall, backsight 
and foresight, till it stand exactly parallel thereto : 
then turne, and standing within the door, view 
straight out by the silk threeds, and so direct one 
to drive stakes all along as f arr as you can see, in a 
straight and perpendicular line. You may also find 
this perpendicular central line, tho' walls, hedges, 
houses, trees, &c., obstruct your view, if you can 
see over them from any window, or off any battle- 
ment, if there is any. 

And as by this instrument you may raise any per- 
pendicular, so by the same you may let a perpend 
fall : for you may alter it hither and thither upon 
the given line, till it direct to the angle or point 
assigned. 

The mid or central line of your avenue being 
found out, you must place your cross thereon, and 
thereby set off half the breadth of it at each side; 
do this at both ends and middle, that they may be 
exactly parallel ; and therein drive stakes almost 
to the head. And when you come to marke out 
for the trees, or to plant them, set a straight pole 
at each driven stake for your direction in going 
straight betwixt the same. 

10 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

If the length of the walke be confin'd, divide it 
by the distance you niynd to plant it ; and if there 
be any odd, add or subtract till all the distances 
be equal ; which distance you must take on a chain 
(fora line will reach or shrink) and begin at one end, 
and go straight to the other, thrusting in a small 
stake at each length ; minding to let both rowes 
go on squair together, that is, one on each side. 

And though the ground be unevenly, yet you 
must hold the chain level, wherefore you may have 
a squair and plumb fixed at your pole or staff for 
your more exact performance thereof. 

When you have staked out the ground, prepare 
the rounding-string, viz., a piece of line doubled, 
and tyed near the point of a stick, and so put the 
double on the stakes where the trees must stand ; 
and stretching the same, make a scratch with the 
point of the stick round, and, with a spade, follow 
that compass, and make the hole. 

If you observe what be said, you may stake out 
any kind of walk, having found one line ; where- 
fore I shall shew you how to find one line, what- 
ever obstruct. 

As first, suppose you would run a line or walk 
through a wood; when you have concluded on the 

11 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

end thereof, there erect a perpendicular as above, 
and run it as f arr into the wood as you can ; then 
at each side thereof set off a parallel line, two or 
three foot from the central line, or half the breadth 
of the intended walk; so shall you have three 
parallel lines running on in straight lines together. 
And where any one runs on a tree, run f oreward 
the other two, and set it off again (when past the 
tree) as it was parallel to its f ellowes ; and so pro- 
ceed till you be through the wood or thickets, still 
marking the trees that fall in the inter vail to be cut. 

A second way is by means of lanthornes with 
burning candles, in a calm night, hanged on stakes : 
you standing in the wood, may plant stakes at 
pleasure; let the candles furthest from you be 
highest, and remove f oreward the lights as need 
requires. 

But if both ends of your walk be determined, and 
you cannot see betwixt, by reason of lengthes, hills, 
woods, houses, or some such obstruction, in such a 
case let two, having each a pole, go to the middle, 
or to such a place betwixt, where they may (by 
looking backsight and foresight) perceive the two 
extreams, (where should be a pole with white 
paper on the slip-boards to make them the better 

12 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

appearance), turn your faces towards each other, 
standing at a large distance asunder, but so as you 
may both see your respective objects. And let A 
direct B to set the pole in a line with his, and that 
at the north-end ; and B direct A to hold in a line 
with his, and that at the south-end; so each direct- 
ing the other by words or signes; let both alter to 
and fro, till they have their desires at once; then 
shall these two, and the extreams, be all four in a 
straight line, whereby you may set as many as you 
please. This way I have I found out by experiment, 
and think it worthy a place amongst the mathe- 
maticks. 

But if you cannot see the two ends, when stand- 
ing in the middle, altho' the poles be never so high, 
then, if it be wood or hedges, the foresaid Ian thornes 
and candles will do the business. 

But if the obstructions be hills, walls, or houses, 
for which you cannot see, either by lanthornes or 
high poles, tho' standing in the centre, then work 
by parallels thus : set off a parallel line so far, as 
that it may run quite beyond the obstruction, on 
the side most convenient ; then set in the parallel 
again at convenient places ; so shall both agree, as 
will appear when the obstruction is removed. 

13 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

But if none of these will do, run a line over by 
guess, but if it miss (as no wonder), take notice of 
your error at the end, by letting a perpendicular 
fall on the determined poynt (by means of the 
squair or cross), and the measure betwixt discovers 
the error : then measure the length of your in- 
tended walk or line, and, at the J thereof, set off 
the fourth of your error ; at the middle the ; at 
the f of the length, set off the f of your error ; this 
will lead you straight to your purpose. 

Trigonometry will also solve this, if you could 
work exactly; for here you have two sides and one 
angle given you. 

If you have a given line, and desires to set off a 
parallel from it, but cannot measure off freely at 
both ends, there being trees, waters, hills, walls or 
houses, obstructing, you may measure, squair or 
perpendicular off at any part of the given line (that 
is most convenient), so far as you mind to go with 
your parallel, at, or upon which point, erect another 
perpendicular to run backsight and foresight, the 
which shall be exactly parallel to the given line, 
as was required. 

Having given some directions for staking out 
walks for planting, yet your avenues and walks 

U 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

must end in some figure or another, whether tri- 
angular, circular, oval, &c. For coaches and carts 
to turn in, as also where walks meet, or cross one 
another, it is requisite that there should be an ex- 
ample laid down for that reason. 

How avenues may end in semicircles and triangles. 
If an avenue ends in a semicircle, it may begin 
with the same, or rather, if the ground will suffer, it 
should begin with a whole circle, having four op- 
posite opens the breadth of the walk. If it ends 
with a triangle, it may begin so likeways; but 
rather with a square, whose entries or opens must 
be in its angles, and also where the walks meet or 
cross one another. You ought to lay down a plan 
of your avenue, but so as the trees in the whole 
may be every way lineal, except in the segment of 
a circle, where they deviate a little. The figures 
should be at least three times the breadth of the 
walk, but so as the ground will admit. Let not the 
trees in the figure stand much above the distance 
of those in the walk, but divide equally ; make the 
breadth of the walk in proportion to its length. I 
think an avenue a mile in length may be 40 ells 
in breadth. Neither short, broad, nor long, narrow 
walkes are handsome, except in case of walkes of 

15 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

shade, and also of avenues where the front of the 
house, jammes, courts, or pavilions are to be ob- 
served : for the breadth of the court should be at 
least the whole length of the house-front ; and if 
two jammes, the middle walke of the avenue may 
be the breadth of the jammes ; or the mid-walk the 
breadth of the whole front, and the side walks the 
breadth of the pavilions, which are on the corners 
of the court ; or divide the house-front in three, 
making the middle walk the just breadth of both 
the side ones : so shall they be every way lineall, 
but do not mask a fine front or veyle a pleasant 
prospect. The length of the avenue, it should run 
so farr as (when we stand at the house) we may 
lose sight of the farr end, if possible. When it runs 
over a brae, then to the eye it appears infinitum, 
and where that cannot be had, it doth very well 
where the sight terminates in a grove or circle of 
firrs. 

The distance of trees is sometimes according to 
the quality of the ground, or trees to be planted ; 
sometimes to the number of rowes, or as the figure 
to be planted will best admit. If a good soyl, plant 
at the wider distance ; if 4 rows, as in an avenue, 
plant at 5, 6, 7, or 8 ells distance ; if two single rows, 

16 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

at 4, 5, or 6 ells ; if circular figures, or the like, at 
2, 3, or 4 ells, or as the figure is small or great : and 
plant so as they may shew the figure to this use 
well. 

Some trees require a wider distance than others ; 
and of consequence these that grow greatest must 
have the largest distance assigned them. 

Note that you intermix not great trees and small 
trees in planting, neither quick growers and slow 
growers : for I observe a kind of emulation amongst 
them. 

CHAPTER III 

HOW TO PLANT THICKETS AND ORCHARDS 

As the ground where you plant must be inclosed, 
so must the trees stand at some distance off the 
fence : if it be a wall whereon are wall-trees, let 
the standards be at least four of their own distances 
from the same, that the sun may not be kept off 
the wall by the height of the trees ; and if you design 
fine walks round the wall, plant the row next to it 
with dwarf -trees or some low hedge, and the trees 
half a distance off such ; if the enclosure be a hedge, 
observe the same rule. Also let the trees be parallel 
to the enclosure : but every plot will not suffer to 
be planted every way lineal, and stand parallel to 

17 2 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

the enclosure too. Therefore it will be necessary, 
first, to enquire a little, what figures they be that 
may thus be planted ; secondly, how to plant such 
as will not admit of this order ; and lastly, how to 
plant these several wayes. 

The figures that may be planted every way in 
rows are many ; yet for brevity's sake I shall men- 
tion but few, as oblong and geometrical squares, 
see figs. .5, 6, 7, 8, 9; rhombus, see fig. 10; rhomboides, 
see fig. 11 ; oxygon or equilateral triangle, see fig. 
12 ; orthogon or right-angled triangle, see fig. 13 ; 
ambligon or triangle with one and two acute tri- 
angles, see fig. 14 ; a sort of trapezium, see fig. 15 ; 
hexagon, see fig. 16 ; octagon, as the whole of fig. 
2. These regular polygones are the nearest way 
for planting a circle. 

Many more figures there are, both regular and 
irregular, that will admit of this order ; but these 
may suffice for illustration. As for these that will 
not, you may plant them parallel to as many sides 
as you can, and let the rest fall as they will. 

Now as to the several wayes, so farr as I know, 
there are but three principal wayes of planting, 
every way lineal, although there be more built 
thereon, viz. squair, rhombus and triangle. In the 

18 



Fig. 5 



Fig. 6 



* * * 



* * * 



Fig. 7 



* * * 

* * * * 

* * 

* * * 



Fig. 9 



Fig. 10 



Fig. 15 Fig. 16 



Fig. 11 . . t 
Fig. 12 



Fig 



* * 



Fig. 14 




PLAN II. DESIGNS FOR PLANTING OUT. 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

first, three of them make a right triangle, and four 
of them describe a circle, see fig. 5. In the second, 
three of them make a triacute triangle, and four of 
them describe an ellipse, see fig. 6. But this way 
will admit of variation. In the third, three of them 
make an equilateral triangle, and four of them de- 
scribe an oval, fig. 7, and seven of them make a cir- 
cle with a centre, fig. 17. 

The manner of planting the first, which is the 
common way, is exemplified in fig. 5. Take the 
length of one side, and divide by the distance you 
intend to plant at, and the product tells how many ; 
and the remainder, if there be any, you may pro- 
portion as before. Then, with your determined dis- 
tance on a chain, begin at a corner and go round 
the outline exactly, thrusting in a stake at every 
length, where the outer row must stand; these 
keeping in a straight line, and at equal distances, 
also straight-boyded and perpendicular. The way 
is this : one must stand at west, and view to east ; 
another at south, and view to north ; causing a third 
set a stake in line with both : so, removing from 
stake to stake (viewing still to the opposite), direct 
the third bywords or signes till his stake be in aline 
with both. Thus proceed, till all the plot be staked 

20 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

out the way the trees should stand when planted, 
as at fig. 5. 

But if the ground be unequal, cause the stake- 
setter hold up a long straight pole (with a plumb- 
rule for holding it perpendicular), and when he re- 
moves, thrust a stake exactly where the pole stood ; 
but if the pole will not do, let the viewers mount 
them on three-footed or standing ladders ; and if 
that will not do, betake yourself to the rule, men- 
tioned in the last chapter, for taking a line over a 
hill, where both ends are confined, as I have done 
in the like case. 

But because some scarcely know signals, the 
stake-setter must be told that, when the viewer 
stands with his face northwards, and waves his 
right hand eastwards, he must go a little eastward 
with his pole ; and when he waves the left, then 
westward ; when both his hands point at once east 
or west, then he must hold the head of the pole so, 
if he have no plumb for his direction ; but when the 
viewer moves both hands, or hat, up and down, then 
the stake-setter must fix there. 

If you plant the second way in a squair, where 
the out-line round is not at equal distances, tho' the 
opposite sides are ; here, in this example, one side 

21 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

is about twelve and one half ells distance, and the 
other fifteen, and the view being angular, and not 
from opposite sides, makes the trees stand at about 
ten and one half ells. 

The Scots ell, according to several Acts of Parlia- 
ment, is three foot one inch, or 37 inches long : six 
ells long multiplied by 6 ells broad, is 36, a f all-squair : 
10 falls in length and 4 in breadth, is 40, a rood- 
squair : 40 falls in length and 4 in breadth, is 160 per 
acre. See the table of superficial squair measure. 
And those who desire long measure, six ells is a fall, 
forty falls a furlong, eight furlongs a mile. See the 
table. 

A Table of Superficial A Table of Superficial 

Squair Measure ac- Long Measure ac- 

cording to Scotland. cording to Scotland, 

Acres 



Roods 



160 



40 



Falls 



5760 



1440 



Ells 



Ells 








6 


Falls 


240 


40 


Furl. 


1920 


320 


8 


Miles 



But if you will plant rhombusoically, as is de- 
signed, then 'tis done bytheequal division of its four 
sides, and by viewing its opposites, as is represented 

22 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 
by the rhombus A, B, C, D, in fig. 6; for tho' its 
angles be not squair, nor equal, yet its sides must 
be equal, and angles opposite. And here it may be 
varied according to the shape of the ground, by 
stretching longer, or opening wider ; A C is its 
breadth, and D B its length. Or you may also plant 
by the rhomboides, as I have done in D A F E, and 
consequently many more figures may be planted 
thereby, as well as these varyed or altered, and yet 
the whole continue in this regular order. 

In the third way, take an example in fig. 7, where 
the length of one side must be divided by the deter- 
mined distance, viz., the distance of the fence being 
subtracted, the length of the side A B is 119, and I 
designe to plant at eight and an half ells ; therefore 
I divide 119, by 8, 5, decimally ; the product is 14 
distances; then there will be 15 rows: here one side 
is staked out, whereby you may plant the whole 
plot thus ; take two distances on the chain, that is, 
hold one end exactly at A and the other at C. Again, 
with that measure on the chain, hold one end at the 
first stake, A, and the other at the second, I ; cause 
the third take the chain exactly by the middle, and 
(holding it stiff) thrust in a straight stake at the 
angle of the chain, N; so these three make an equi- 

23 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

lateral triangle : then remove, holding one end at 
the second stake, I, and the other at the third, C ; 
stretch the chain and thrust in a stake at its angle 
or middle as before. Thus you may proceed from 
stake to stake till that row be planted ; and so on 
from row to row, till the whole plot be staked out. 
Remember to set the stakes straight and perpen- 
dicular, considering their thickness also; inall which 
if you be not very exact, you cannot avoyd error, 
before you come to the other side. 

A fourth way of planting, is that which is ordin- 
arly used in thickets, fig. 8, for when the trees grow 
large, every other row (suppose the short ones) 
may be taken out, that the rest may have freedom, 
and so benefited by the sun and air ; thus one fruit- 
tree at large will bear more than four crowded ones, 
and yet continue in as good order ; and will answer, 
in some measure, the expectations of those who 
complain, while their orchards are young, of their 
having few fruit, seeing the more trees they have, 
the more fruit is to be expected : therefore, when 
their branches begin to meet, they ought to remove 
them, lop and plant them by their hedges, I mean 
by the divisors of their corn-land, and the trees, be- 
ing now full grown, and able to defend themselves. 

24 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

This is also applicable to forrest-trees, seeing, while 
they are young, they afford little shelter, except 
they are more than ordinary thick ; and yet, when 
they grow up, cannot prosper to that stately magni- 
tude you would desire, unless the same care is used, 
viz., the removal of each second row, which may 
be effectually planted about the bordures of your 
corn-land, meadow, and'pasture; which now needs 
no fence, except a few thorns stuck about to keep 
the cattle from rubbing. In orchards, if the short 
rowes be cherries and plumes, they, not being long- 
lived, will be past their best before the apples and 
pears, which may be in the long rowes, require 
their room from them. 

The methode is this ; you must mark out the plot 
round about, and view from angle to angle of each 
geometrical squair : but then the distance of the 
outer-row must be greater than in the first way ; 
otherwise the trees will stand much nearer : as 7 
is to 5, so is the distance of the trees through the 
plot. 

Or you may plant it by viewing from opposite 
sides, as in my first way, only you must plant the 
out-line of stakes round about, at half the former 
distance, and let the stake-setter pass by every other 

25 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

distance (except you intend to plant goosberries 
and curran-standards in these blanks, and then the 
trees and shrubs together stand as in the first way), 
and now the proportion is, as 7 is to 10, so is the 
distance of the outer-row round, to the distance of 
the trees : or as 10 is to 7, so is the distance of the 
trees to the distance of the outer-row round. Such 
proportion doth the side and diagonal of a geo- 
metrical squair bear the one to the other, and a- 
bundantly exact for our purpose. 

The fifth way is, and very notable, where orchard 
and kitchen-garden are all one, or where you have 
corn or grass among your trees ; or trees, whether 
barren or fruitful, among your corn or grass, see 
fig. 9. 

If for a kitchen-garden, divide it in ridges, mak- 
ing the tables or pathes in the middle of the widest 
interval ; and then subdivide it so as the trees may 
fall in the middle of the beds or bordures. If for 
corn-land, the ridge must be between each row 
plowed within four foot on each side the rows or 
ranges of trees ; which eight-foot bordures must be 
delved each spring ; or, if stiff clay at both equi- 
noxes, and no vegetable suffered to grow thereon : 
for a man, or two, with large and handsome hows, 

26 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

10 inches broad, will quickly go through them in 
summer, and cut the weeds at their first peeping : 
this would certainly be a great improvement : and 
whether you apply to corn or grass, fruit or forrest- 
trees, I would advise you to keep them thus clean 
of weeds, and if ever you repent it, blame me. 

A sixth way of planting trees, is, to make all the 
walkes or intervals open from the house propor- 
tionally, so as, when you stand at the house, the 
walkes may appear all of an equal breadth to the 
eye ; this would suit well my contrivance of the 
house, being like the sun sending forth his beams. 

The distance of trees in thickets and orchards, is 
either according to the quality of the ground, trees 
to be planted, or methode of planting. 

If a good and deep soil, there trees will live long, 
grow to a great magnitude, and require a large dis- 
tance. Apples planted the first, second, and third 
way may be from eight to ten ells distance. Pears 
so planted, at ten, or twelve ells : and of these planted 
the fourth way, may be at the least distance men- 
tioned ; because they will stand near the greatest, 
when every second is removed : but if planted the 
fifth way, they may be from sixteen to twenty ells 
one way, and from eight to ten the other. Cherries 

27 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

and plumes from five to seven ells, being planted 
the first, second, third, or fourth way. As for the 
distance of dwarfs and wall-trees, see the next 
chapter. 

At the same distance with pears, plant oak, elm, 
ash, plane, beech, walnut, chesnut : with apples, 
plant greens, service, limes, poplars. At the distance 
of plum and cherrie, plantmaple, horn-beam, hassel, 
birch, laburnum, aspen, alder, will owes, pine, firr, 
yew. 

If the ground be level, plant such trees as grow 
lowest, at the south side, and still higher by degrees 
towards the north, that the tallest and strongest 
may be on the north side ; so shall the northern 
blasts be guarded off, and the sun-beams the better 
received in amongst them. If the ground be not 
level, plant such as grow low on the highest ground, 
and the contrary. And set alwayes the crooked or 
leaning side towards the south-west, whence come 
the strongest winds, whichin a fewyears will make 
them the more erect ; for you may observe that all 
trees that are not well sheltered from these westerly 
winds, lean or decline towards the east. 

When the ground is all marked out with stakes, 
put on the rounding-string, and make the holes : I 

28 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

use not to make them less than six foot diameter 
for ordinary trees ; and you may suffer the outer- 
row of stakes to stand till you plant the rest, that 
you may view thereby. 

CHAPTER IV 

HOW TO MAKE THE KITCHEN-GARDEN 

THE kitchen-garden is the best of all gardens. In 
every garden it is ordinary, first, to make a bordure 
at the wall ; secondly, a walke ; and thirdly, a bor- 
dure on the other side of the walke : thus the walke, 
with a bordure on each side of it, going round the 
whole plot, parallel to the wall : but if your ground 
be large enough, I bid you to make a larger distance 
betwixt the walke and the wall. It is also ordinary 
to divide the garden into four plots, by two walkes 
crossing from side to side : but I am not for any 
cross- walkes in gardens ; yet if you would have 
more than one, which divides the whole into two 
parts, make them all parallel through the plot, lead- 
ing to the house, and equi-distant from the middle, 
still making the gates, doors, or entries front the 
walkes. 

In your kitchen-plots, and in nurseries for trees, 
plant no trees through the ground; for when they 

29 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

grow up, they cover and choak the ground, so that 
you will be necessitate to seek for another. There- 
fore, make only three bordures next and parallel 
to the walks around, on each hand ; plant the first, 
or that next the walke, on both sides with a holly- 
hedge ; the second with goosberries and currans, 
and the third with dwarf -trees; keeping the ground 
all open and void within for kitchen-herbs and 
roots ; which must be orderly divided into ridges ; 
and these again divided into beds, furrowes, and 
drills, for your more orderly and convenient plant- 
ing and sowing. 

As for proportion^ note that your walkes extend 
in breadth according to their length, viz. a thousand 
foot long, thirty foot broad ; five hundred foot long, 
twenty foot broad; two hundred and fifty in length, 
fifteen in breadth ; and an hundred foot long, ten 
foot broad. 

Make the bordures six foot broad ; the tables or 
pathes betwixt the level ridges, wherein the ground 
is divided, three foot broad ; the beds, six foot broad, 
with foot and half furrowes : you may make seven 
of these beds in each ridge, and the whole length 
of the plot all running from the house : but if your 
ground be small, you may make your bordures and 

30 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

beds narrower ; yet still let the whole plot, ridges, 
bordures and beds, be equally divided, and their 
areas or edges three inches higher than the fur- 
rowes or pathes, and so much higher than the side 
of the walkes as the middle of the walk is higher 
than its sides ; all handsomely clapt up with the 
rake-head, by a line : and the like order you may 
observe in your seminaries and nurseries of trees; 
then plant and sow by lines and drills, both for 
beauty and conveniency. 

When you set about this, divide the bed, bordure, 
or ridge, at both ends, into so many equal parts (by 
the help of the long rule and small sticks) ; then 
stretch the line from end to end by these sticks, and 
with the corner of the rule make a marke by the 
line, and therein set your herbs and plants ; and for 
setting of seeds, measure out, and stretch on the line 
as before, and with the setting-stick make the holes 
by the line (not too deep) and therein put the seeds. 
And if you sow in drills, make a scratch, or little 
ebb gutter, with the point of the stick by the line, 
and therein sow. If the rowes be two foot distance, 
let the first be one foot within the edge ; if six inches 
asunder, make them three inches off the edge, and 
so proportionally. Note that I have told the dis- 

31 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

tancesof each sort of kitchen-herbs and fruits, Part 
II., Chap. VI., where is intended six foot broad 
beds ; but where they are less, there must be fewer 
rows. 

The kitchen-garden may be placed nearest the 
stables, for the conveniency of wheeling in manure, 
and out of sight of the front of the house : because 
of the impropriety of the view, to see manure in 
that garden where the eyes of the persons in the 
house should be more agreeably entertained, by 
lawns, avenues, vistas, and other more agreeable 
prospects than which is necessary in kitchen-gar- 
dens : and when you plant or sow, place every 
species by themsel ves,except such mixture as is men- 
tioned, Part II., Chaps. I. and III., and where you 
have not a whole ridge, or at least a bed of a kind, 
you may compleat them with such as are nearest 
of growth and continuance : also plant such as are 
of long duration, and such as must be yearly re- 
newed, severally, each in ridges or beds by them- 
selves ; the order is to make every sort opposite 
itself. For example, plant perennials, such as arti- 
choaks, &c., by themselves, that they may not 
interfere with that ground which is to be wrought 
up annually for the annual productions of this 

32 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

garden, such as onions, carrots, turnips, leeks, par- 
snips, &c. Perennials are such plants as continue 
many years in the ground ; annuals are such as 
usually die immediately after they once bear seed, 
and that is usually, tho' not universally, the first 
or second year. 

As for physical-plots, you may have them in that 
ridge of the kitchen-garden next the bordures : and 
if you incline to have no other pleasure-garden, 
you may have flowers there, and on the bordures 
next the walks also : another ridge or interval be- 
twixt the walk and wall will be excellent for all 
early, rare, and tender plants. You may rill your 
physic-herbs in tribes and kindreds, planting every 
tribe by themselves, and you may also place one of 
each kind in alphabetical order. 

As for walls, bricks are best ; next to these, stone 
and lime ; four ells is low enough, five or six if you 
please. Make your walls of south aspect in straight 
lines, but not in semicircles, which is by some er- 
roneously practised ; for there the wind being pent 
up occasions squirles, and retards the ripening of 
the fruits there planted ; nor should there be any 
hot-beds nearer the wall than twentyfeet,excepting 
cucumbers in the ground for picklers. The distance 

33 3 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

of wall-trees will inform you what quantity to 
make them ; as for example, fifteen foot is the 
distance of cherries and plumes, (except such as the 
May-cherrie, which, being dwarfish, requires less), 
eighteen foot for apricocks and peaches, twenty foot 
for apples, twenty-four for pears ; therefore, if you 
make the semi-circumference eighteen foot for 
apricocks and peaches, (you may plant two dwarf 
cherries therein) ; let the plain if straight wall be- 
twixt each semicircle be just one tree distant like- 
wayes. 

Also in straight walls divide equally, and plant 
none in the corners : measure first off six foot on 
each side the gates or doors, for honisuckles, jas- 
mines, &c. And whatever be the distance of your 
trees, set them half therefrom, as also from the cor- 
ners ; except where youmake all their headsply one 
way : if on a low wall such may stand three foot 
from the corners, or the honisuckles they lean from, 
and a whole distance from these they lean towards. 
You may plant a goosberrie and curran in the in- 
tervals of your wall-trees, while young, and when 
the trees approach, remove them. Let the roots of 
your wall-trees stand near a foot from the wall, 
with their heads inclining towards it. Wall-trees 

34 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

in orchards (whose standards are in the quincunx) 
should stand opposite to the middle interval of the 
standards. 

The distance of dwarf -standards is sixteen foot, 
where there is but one row ; and in following this 
rule of the three bordures, they will stand just six- 
teen foot off the hedge, observing to plant in the 
middle of the bordures. The distance of goos- 
berries and currans may be six foot. But in all your 
plantings and sowings divide the ground so as each 
kind may stand and grow equally. 

To conclude, these three bordures surrounding 
each side of the walkes, handsomely made up and 
planted as aforesaid, will secure the ground within 
from hurtful winds and colds, and make people 
keep the walkes ; doors handsomely paled being on 
the entries to the hedges, so as they may neither 
hurt you nor themselves. Also the hedges, dwarf- 
standards, shrubs, and wall-trees being well prun'd 
and plyed, with the bordures and walkes kept clean 
and orderly, will make it look like a garden of plea- 
sure, and hide all the ruggedness that happeneth 
in kitchen ground by delving, manuring, turning 
and overturning throughout the year. 

35 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

CHAPTER V 

HOW TO MAKE THE PLEASURE-GARDEN 

PLEASURE-GARDENSusethto be divided into walkes 
and plots, with a bordure round each plot ; and at 
the corner of each, may be a holly, or some such 
shrub, train'd up, some pyramidal, others spheri- 
cal ; the trees and shrubs at the wall well plyed and 
prun'd, the greens thereon cut in several figures, 
the walkes layed with gravel, and the plots within 
the grass (in several places whereof may be flower- 
pots), the bordures boxed, and planted with variety 
of fine flowers orderly intermixt, weeded, mow'd, 
rolled, and kept all clean and handsome. 

Plain draughts are only in use, and most prefer- 
able : that which I esteem most is, plain straight 
bordures and pathes running all one way, that is, 
from the house, with one walke parting it in the 
middle, leading to the house-door : and if the ground 
be large, you may make one round by the wall too. 
Let the bordures and pathes be both of a breadth, 
viz., six foot ; box the bordures, plant them with 
flowers ; lay the pathes, as well as the walkes, with 
gravel ; plant the walls with fruit and flower-bear- 
ing trees variously. 

Outer-courts have only one bordure at the wall, 
36 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

planted with laurels and other greens ; one pathed 
or brick- walke in the middle, leading to the middle 
of the house-front, with a long grass-plot on each 
hand. 

The bordures of your kitchen-garden, round by 
the walkes, may be boxed with thyme, lavender, 
hysop, rue, &c., the next with parsley, straw-berries, 
violets, July-flowers, &c., cherrie-gardens and phy- 
sick-gardens, with sweet-brier often cut, or box cut 
three times per annum, in April, June and August, 
remembering to cut their roots at the inside every 
second year, that they exhaust not the strength or 
nourishment of the flowers or herbs. But that which 
I preferre for flower-gardens above all, is dwarf- 
juniper, raised from seed and planted thus : when 
the ground is levelled, measure out the bordures 
(but raise them not above the walkes, except you 
minde to lay gravel), stretch a line, and, with the 
edge of the rule, mark along thereby, and therein 
set the young slips of box, or the young plants of 
juniper, attwo years' growth ; then prepare the bor- 
dures, by delving in consumed manure of cows and 
sheep, covering on a little lime, topt with a little sand 
to lye all summer, kept clean from weeds by hawing. 
At the beginning of winter delve and mix together, 

37 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

to lye all winter un-raked, and at the spring re-delve, 
stirr and mix it thoroughly, and trim and plant 
your flowers and other plants in their seasons. See 
Part IL, Chap. VII. 

In making the walkes in any gar den, first level up 
the bordures at its sides : secondly, drive a row of 
stakes in the middle of the walke, and level them 
accordingly, i.e. stretch a line across the walke be- 
twixt the two level bordures, and marke where it 
hits the stake in the middle of the walke ; do this 
at both ends, and by viewing betwixt, you will level 
the rest ; see the next chapter of levelling. But 
you may minde, that the walke must rise a little 
in the middle, and yet the middle of the walke and 
top of the boxing of the bordure must be level, i.e. 
the boxings so much above the side of the walke, 
as the middle of the walke is above its sides. Where 
your boxing is timber or stone, fill up the bordure 
of earth to the top thereof ; but where your boxing 
is of box, juniper, or the like, the earth within the 
bordure, and edge of the walkes and pathes with- 
out, must be equal. 

As for the rise or swell the walkes have, which 
makes them the segment of a circle, grass, or brick- 
walkes may have, for thirty foot broad, six inches 

38 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

of swell ; for twenty foot, four inches ; ten foot, two 
inches ; and let gravel have an inch more propor- 
tionally; agreeable to the rule of proportion in 
arithmetick, as twenty is to four, so is thirty to six. 
If gravel or brick- walkes or pathes lye by the side 
of grass, make the grass an half inche higher than 
such. If the walke be grass, make two foot tables, 
or pathes of gravel, betwixt it and the bordure. 

To lay grass, first level the ground, whether a 
walke or plot; and 'tis the better to lye a year so 
made up, before you lay the turf ; because it may 
be levelled up again, if it sink into holes : if it lye 
wet, bottom with stones and rubbish ; and, if the 
earth be fat, take it out, and put in sand: however, 
lay the sand a foot thick immediately under the 
turf; then by the squair, stretch lines, ritt with the 
ritting-iron (which is an half round put into the end 
of a crooked stick) and raise the turf with the turf- 
spade (which is broad mouthed, otherwise all one 
with the husbandman's breast-turfing-spade) ; let 
the turf be of equal thickness, near inch and half 
thick, a foot and half broad, and as much in length ; 
lay their green sides together when you put them 
in the cart, but do not roll them when brought home: 
lay them all even and close, feeling each particular 

39 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

turf with your foot, so as you may discern any in- 
equality, to be helped immediately; in laying, still 
beat every two or three rows of turf, while moist, 
with the wooden-beater, and when the whole is laid, 
and well beat, roll it well with the stone roller, which 
should be as big as a hogshead. The spring and 
autumn is the best time. And if you mind to keep 
a good pile of grass, suffer it never to grow inch 
long; beat, mow, and roll it often, especially in the 
mornings and moist weather. 

But if you would lay the hard tile or brick- walkes, 
prepare as for grass, minding it wants the breadth 
of the brick of the true height ; for you must set 
them all on their edge, close by one another on a 
bed of lime, laying the side of every second row 
crossing the ends of the other, and place one in the 
middle of the walkes, that both sides maybe regular. 

To lay gravel, cleanse first the bottomes of the 
walkes of fat earth, and root- weeds, and bottom it 
with stones ; and lay over that about half a foot of 
clean round gravel, and about three inches top- 
gravel of equal greatness, which may be like beans 
and pease ; you must make it thus equal by sift- 
ing, and so rake, tred and beat ; and when com- 
pleately levelled, beat it well with wooden-beaters, 

40 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

while moist ; then roll soundly with the wooden- 
roller, and afterwards with the stone-roller, especi- 
ally in rain, for which the spring and autumn is 
best : but if in dry weather, you must dash water 
on the roller (continually in rolling) with the 
watering-pot, and if you are forced to use sea or 
water-sand, you may beat some good clay to dust 
and mix with it before you lay it ; weed, and roll 
frequently. 

For the orderly planting of flowers there maybe 
three wayes ; as first, in bordures of pleasure-gar- 
dens or courts, plant five rowes in the bordure, and 
intermix them orderly, i.e. divide and plant every 
sundry sort, through the whole garden, at equal 
distances, and not only so, but of every sundry 
colour thereof also : let never two of a kind, nor 
two of a colour, stand together, without other 
kinds and colours interveening, so there may not 
be two or three of a kind or colour at one end, 
bordure, plot, or place, and none of them through 
the rest, but universally and ornamentally inter- 
mixt : and when you find a breach by some being 
past the flower, you may have various annual flow- 
ers sowen in pots, ready to plunge into the vacan- 
cies of the bordures for continuing this beauty. 

41 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

Secondly, in my sort of flower-gardens, which has 
borduresand pathes running all one way, viz., from 
the house, plant five rows, and intermix them, not 
as in the last way, but set five rowes of each kind 
cross thebordure,so as twenty five of each sort may 
standina geometrical squair ; for instance, a squair 
of tulips, a squair of boars-ears, a squair of crocuses, 
a squair of July-flowers, a squair of anemonies,and 
a squair of cowslips ; and so a squair of tulips, an- 
other of boars-ears, &c., again intermixing through 
the whole of that bordure the colours of each sort : 
then may you make the next bordure so intermixt, 
but differing ; minding, that as you intermix the 
bulbous and fibrous plants in each bordure, so must 
they be also in the crossing, that the squair of fibrous 
in this way, oppose the squair of bulbous in the 
next ; and likewayes whatever bordure such sorts 
areinon the one side of the walke,set the very same 
in the bordure equi-distant from the walke on the 
other side, that the whole may be regular and uni- 
formly intermixt all the year, looking from all sides, 
ends or angles. 

Thirdly, in nurseries of beds and ridges, plant 
every kind in thickets by themselves, and annuals 
and perennials by themselves, (except only that 

42 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

you intermix their coloures), that is, make a whole 
bed or ridge of each kind, six rowes in the bed ; the 
dwarfish maybe eight rowes : thus every thicket of 
them flowering in their own order will have a great 
show, and at a great distance. Here also observe 
uniformity, that is, alike on each hand, for if you 
have a ridge or bed of July-flowers, or the like, on 
the one side, plant another thereof at the same place 
on the other, &c. 

And because flowers must be removed, some in 
one, two, or three years, and the earth renewed or 
enriched, and properly prepared, else they degen- 
erate (because in a length of time they exhaust the 
substance of the ground, at least that part appro- 
priate to them), therefore you have a good conven- 
iency for effectuating the same by these last two 
models prescribed; for then you will have some beds 
or squairs where your annuals stood, into which you 
may re-plant your tulips, anemonies, or the like un- 
to ; and so another sort where these stood, and your 
annuals again where these last were : and because 
here you remove a whole bed or squair of a kind 
at once, you may very conveniently prepare, delve, 
stir, beat, sift, and mix it thoroughly with the proper 
soyl, a thing most necessary; and this you could not 

43 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

well do, where they are scattered as in the first way. 
See the rules mentioned in Part II., Chap. I. and 
Chap. VII. 

As to terrase-walkes, if the brow on which you 
make them be not too steep, the work will be the 
more facile : if you build them up with walls, be 
careful to sound deep enough according to the level; 
and if the middle of the terrase be on the central 
line of the house, or of any walke, make the stayr 
of the upmost and downmost there to part at a plat 
on the head, going down at both sides ; so much of 
the stayr-case maybe within, as that the outer-edge 
thereof may be in a line with the bordure at the 
wall ; by this it marrs not the walke ; the rest may 
be at the ends : plant the borders at the upper-side 
of the walke with wall- trees, the under- side (being 
but an ell high) with laurels, &c. But if your ter- 
rase consists only of walkes and sloping-banks, you 
may have the bordure at the head and foot of each 
bank, on either side the walkes, planted with stan- 
dard-cherries, &c., and the banks of violets, straw- 
berries, or grass. 

As for pondes, make them large and broad, such 
being best both for the health of fish and f owll ; 
squair, triangle, circle, oval, or what figure fits your 

44 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

ground best ; let them be five or six foot of solid 
water at least, with sluces to let it run in and out 
at pleasure ; keep them clean; for such water is the 
more preferable for watering plants. 

I am against arbust and close-walkes, except trees 
naturally closing, whereby we have both shade and 
air. 

CHAPTER VI 

HOW TO LEVEL GROUND 

I HAVE often wished that there might be some rules 
found, whereby this expensive work might become 
more easy. There are two sorts of levelling, viz. the 
horizontal and sloping : the first is best known, but 
the last more profitable and convenient. For ex- 
ample, I have made a plot slop four foot by two 
hundred long, and eighteen inches by three hundred 
and eighty foot the other way : this was not per- 
spicuous to vulgar eyes ; yet to have made it hori- 
zontal would have been ridiculous, as to time,paines, 
and expenses. And in levelling the walkes about a 
plot (which sloped naturally) so as to make them 
correspond with the ground around, I behoved to 
make the middle walke agree with the side ones, 
whereupon it slops ten foot in three hundred and 
seventy long : now if I had made this horizontal, 

45 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

it would have been five foot, or ten steps lower than 
the one side walke, and as much higher than the 
other, and so worse and more inconvenient than 
before, both as a walke, and anent correspondency 
with the rest of the ground within : therefore I am 
for levelling any ground in a sloping manner, that 
it may turn a little to the sun, if possible, for drain- 
ing water, and that it may correspond with its ad- 
juncts, and above all, in order to prevent the more 
costly way ; for 'tis certainly a principal observa- 
tion in levelling, not only to cause the ground of 
itself serve itself, but also to level it as it lyes most 
conveniently, which is the cheap and easie way of 
levelling. When you have a row of stakes set in a 
straight line, and at about twenty foot distance, as 
in the edge of a bordure or middle of a walke, the 
way of levelling, rather horizontally or sloping, is 
to mark and put a nail in the two stakes which are 
at the extreams or ends thereof, and to view be- 
twixt : cause marke all the rest which are betwixt 
in a level line therewith. This is the easiest, the ex- 
actest and quickest way : and, by the same methode, 
you may go round any plot, and consequently cross 
it every way according to this direction. 

If what you would have horizontal, place the long 
46 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

rule and the level at one end, suppose the sole of 
the door, till the plumb fall right in recovering, and 
view alongst the said rule, (as on a fowling piece) 
that you may see what part of each stake it hits, 
and cause one, with a piece of white paper, or white 
hafted knife, hold the same at each stake its haft 
tending out, as the nails which bear up the line, 
and direct him by words or signes to hold up or 
down till it be just level; when they are all marked, 
measure down so much on each stake as was raised 
up for conveniency in viewing ; there marke, put 
in nailes a little, stretch on the line, and level up 
the earth or gravel thereunto. 

And where you would have determin'd slops, set 
on the level, and make the far-end stake in a level 
line therewith ; then measure down upon the said 
stake or pole, from the place marked, so much as 
you designe to slop, and put in a naile with white 
paper about it ; and at the upper-side of the rule 
in the stake at the door, put in another nail, and 
by viewing betwixt these two, mark all the rest as 
before. If the distance between the extreams be 
f arr, so as the sight may dazzle, let the viewer de- 
scend from his station, and come forward at every 
five or six stakes ; and holding his knife at the last 

47 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

marked stake, cause his assistant or stake-marker 
proceed. 

To level as the ground lyes, let its slop be what 
it will, you need neither level or rule, (except you 
please to try how much it slops, after it is done, for 
satisfaction) ; only set stakes as before, and viewing 
the ground narrowly, put nails in the stakes, which 
are at the extreams, where you think the ground 
will run when levelled, to make it serve it self, and 
as it lyes best or easiest for levelling ; and when 
you have concluded upon the level at the extreams, 
mark all the stakes in the interval, by viewing as 
above. 

But to proportion the level to the ground, is the 
whole art of levelling. 'Tis true it is easy, if you 
have a plot or walke a foot higher at one end, to 
take half a foot thereof, and lay on the low end, so 
as the two ends may be horizontal ; or, if it be hori- 
zontal, to take nine inches off the one end, and lay 
on the other, that it may slop eighteen inches; but 
if some places of it lye one way, and some another, 
and some neither the one nor the other, this in- 
creaseth the difficulty. Wherefore you must first 
drive stakes at the corners of the plot ; then view 
the ground about and put nailesin the stakes where 

48 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

you would have the level run, or at least where you 
think by your eye it fall most conveniently, to make 
it contain it self, and the more easy to be levelled: 
also set up several stakes in the intervals and cross- 
wayes through the plot from opposite angles, and 
by viewing betwixt the f oresaid nails every way, 
marke all the stakes level ; but if you cannot see 
themarkesof this supposed level which are on these 
corner stakes, seeing there may be some below the 
ground, little hills, or some such obstructions lying 
in the way, then measure equally upon each of them, 
so f arr as you think convenient for getting your 
sight, and mind to take down the same again after 
viewing. 

When all is marked with this supposed level, go 
over it, and note narrowly how it will agree, and 
so, as your reason shall teach you to alter, you may 
take up one end or let down the other, or both, till 
you bring it to such a proportion, as to do its own 
business it self. Or you may work more exactly 
thus : 

Suppose youhaveabordure,or middle of awalke, 
with sixteen stakes driven therein at twenty foot 
distance, all marked with a supposed level, and 
ten of these markes above ground, and six under 

49 4 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

ground : First, measure how f arr the markes on 
each of the ten stakes are above ground, and write 
them down particularly; and adding their mea- 
sures together, you find thirteen foot four inches. 
Secondly, measure how f arr the markes of the six 
stakes are under ground, write down, adding them 
together, and you find it twelve foot ; subtract the 
one from the other and the difference is sixteen 
inches, which must be divided by sixteen stakes in 
the bordure, that is, one inch to each stake; so that 
this supposed level is an inch higher over all than 
the true level, which being taken down, will make 
the ground there level it self, and no more. This 
may suffice for an example, but I could say more, 
if I did see your ground. And if you can thus pro- 
portion the level to one bordure, walke, or one row 
of stakes, you may, by the same rule, find the level 
for the stakes round and across the plot, and conse- 
quently level the same accordingly : for having once 
concluded on the level, drive stakes over all the plot 
as in my first way of planting trees, and marke and 
put nailes therein, as above is taught for carrying 
the line. Except you mean to follow my method 
of levelling the kitchen-garden, or the same for 
planting or sowing, which is only to level one bor- 

50 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

dure thus by stakes and lines. Round each plot, 
and by the eye, level up the ground within corre- 
spondent thereto, all along in trenching: albeit 
this is not so proper for courts and grass-plots, yet, 
as by this means I use to level ground without a 
level, so do I think this way of finding out the true 
level, by means of a supposed one, worthy your 
notice, and if rightly improved, will save you much 
money and paines. 

Be cautious in founding your walls, lest you un- 
dermine them in levelling: nor is it convenient 
sometimes to confine your level to the foundation 
of walls already built ; for in so doing, you may lose 
more than it would cost you to cast down and re- 
build; but in such cases, you may rather build under 
gradually. 

There are some bad lying plots and walkes, with 
an ascent at the head, hollow in the middle, and 
level at the foot; these and the like are very trouble- 
some to level under one denomination; for the tak- 
ing down the hill, bares it so, that plants cannot 
prosper thereon. Some are necessitate to take out 
the gravel, tile, or stones, so much deeper, and tra veil 
earth again ; but I rather advise to make terrases : 
you need not confine yourself to the number of 

51 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

banks, but only to the proportion and uniformity. 
If it tend all one way, high at one end, and low at 
the other, then it is proper enough for perpendicular 
walkes that front the house ; but if low in the middle, 
and high at both ends, or low at both ends and 
high in the middle, then more proper for parallel 
walkes (whose extremities are equi-distant from 
the central line of the house) : remember to divide 
and slop these equally. 

This minds me of some abuses which I have seen, 
as a plot of sloping levelled ground, with another 
horizontally levelled lying at the foot thereof, (at 
least not under one slop) ; or horizontal walkes and 
bordureslyingby the foot and head of sloping plots ; 
these are unseemly ; for you should always make 
them slop under the same denomination, except 
in steep and high banks : I have made walkes of 
eighteen foot broad slop eighteen inches from one 
side to the other, because the whole plot sloped the 
same way, so much proportionally ; yet to the eye 
it appeared very pleasant. But where such hori- 
zontal and sloping pieces lye contiguous, the defect 
is easily seen ; therefore if you be necessitate to 
lay some plots so, (albeit I know no reason for 
laying walkes so), make rather a hedge to inter- 

52 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

cept; and in all your works let there be a con- 
nexion. 

There are some more obstructions in levelling, as 
in a long walke, when you have the two ends found 
and marked, either with a supposed or true level, 
and cannot see betwixt, so as to do it exactly by 
reason of length : here two may go to the middle, 
or near it, where you may conveniently see both 
ends, looking at a distance backward and forward; 
there drive in two stakes near to the length of the 
long straight rule, at which hold on the rule, and 
let one view alongst the same, till the marke at the 
west-end be level therewith, and likewise the other 
towards the east, so that both may alter up or down 
till they have their desires at once. Then fix the 
rule, and having as many stakes set as is needful, 
you may view backsight and foresight thereon, and 
level them all exactly. 

But if a wall, a house, &c., intercept, measure per- 
pendicular, and exactly up to the top thereof, and 
on the other side measure down the same again ; 
and so set forward the level, but so as it may com- 
municate with the rest when obstructions are re- 
moved. 

But if a hill, go to the top, set a true level, and 
53 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

laying ane eye thereto, cause one with a long pole 
go down, till its top be level therewith, (he holding 
it level by a plumb-rule), then descend from your 
stations, and set the upper end of the rule where 
the pole stood, there level it, and do as before ; thus 
from station to station, to the foot of the hill, (if it 
be so great), keeping accompt in a note-book what 
poles and parts it contains, which may be as easily 
taken down on the other side by the same method. 

But if it be possible to see over the obstruction 
on three footed standing ladders, by help of long 
poles or pikes, as I have done in the like case, raise 
your level thereon, and having viewed and marked 
that on the other side, measure down the same 
there, &c. 

In levelling any ground, for kitchen-ground, or- 
chards, or nurseries, take not away its good earth 
or surface, as you bring down the heights, but al- 
wayes turn over the upper part thereof behind you, 
carrying away that which is below, so much deeper, 
that it may contain that surface, and put the bad 
earth in the bottom of the hollowes, with better 
mould above it. 

In the practice of levelling, or other works, con- 
trive the working so, as there may be still a motion 

54 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

amongst all the partes : and albeit carts are cheaper 
for levelling than wheel-barrowes,if the way of car- 
riage be not very short ; yet if you do not set as 
many men to fill the carts, as may have the one full 
against the other come in, and no more, you lose 
considerably; arid this will be according to the dis- 
tance of the carriage, or as the earth is capable of 
being wrought : and so with wheel-barrows ; three 
barrows for two wheelers and one filler sometimes 
doth well; sometimes more fillers or fewer wheelers ; 
yet still let them have a spare-barrow; and if this 
could be done with carts also, it would be of great ad- 
vantage. Wherefore, in my opinion, there is no way 
so expeditious to worke this effect, as the carts with 
three wheels, whereby two men with two of these 
carts, and one horse, can do as much as three men, 
two horses, and two carts ; for one man to fill the 
spare cart, the other man to drive the one horse ; 
and when he comes in, he has nothing to do, but 
take the traces and hooks of the empty cart, and 
puts upon the rings of the full one, and so drive on. 
This cart has no trams or limbers, but a swingle- 
tree or breast-board before, where the rings that 
keep the traces are: it has a handsome folding body ; 
the third wheell is about thirty inches in diameter, 

55 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

all of iron, and runs in a shiers of the same, fastened 
perpendicularly under the middle of the fore-breast, 
with a turning pin of iron : the other two wheels 
are common, but if they have an iron axis, the better. 
To bring in water in pipes to your houses, courts, 
gardens, pondes, parks, &c. consider on the level ; 
for as the place into which you convey it must 
alwayes be lower than the fountain from whence 
it comes, otherwise it cannot flow thither ; so you 
must take notice, that no hill in the way of its con- 
veyance be so high as the fountain it self. You may 
find the level by placing your instrument at the 
well or fountain, as is directed in walkes ; and if a 
hill intercept that sight, plant on the top thereof, 
that by backsight and foresight you may find the 
difference, and hence you may know whether you 
can carry it about the obstruction ; but if the dis- 
tance be far, you must needs be the more exact. As 
for the instrument, the cross described in Chap. II. 
whose sights may be two prospect glasses, may do 
well enough, whether for one or many stations. Let 
one stand at the spring-head, another betwixt and 
the place to which you desire to carry the water, 
a large distance asunder ; but so as a third man 
about the middle may see both their marke-boards, 

56 



TREATING OF CONTRIVANCE 

that is, on their pike-staves, and direct them to hold 
level by his back and foresight, desiring them to 
keep accompt what feet and parts ; and so come 
f oreward till the assistant at the well plant where 
the foremost stood ; and thus proceed quite in a 
straight line, from station to station so long as 
needful. At length, add all the measures of back- 
stations together, and also those of the fore-sta- 
tions ; subtract the one from the other, and the 
remainder of levels betwixt the fountain and the 
appointed place. 

Allow for the fall of the water, for every thousand 
foot in length, twelve inches of slop at least. 

I confess, I need to apologize for these and the 
like digressions, but the earnest desire of severals 
forced me. 




THE SECOND PART 
OF THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

TREATING OF 

THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 
CHAPTER I 

OF THE SEVERAL WAYES OP PROPAGATION 
I AM not to describe the varieties in the tribes and 
kindreds of plants (seeing I am not now writing a 
herbal), but only what is most material to their 
propagation and improvement. Wherefore I shall 
shew: 

First, in general, the several wayes of propaga- 
tion ; and then particularly some of the most use- 
full. 

The several wayes of increasing them ; and these 
are: 

First by seeds, kyes, kirnells, nuts, stones. 

Secondly by off-sets, suckers, and slivings taken 
from the mother-plant. 

Thirdly by cuttings, stems, and slips, set without 
roots. 

Fourthly by laying the branch of a growing plant 
down into the earth. 

Fifthly by carrying up soil to it, where it will not 
bend down. 

Sixthly by various wayes of graftings. 

Lastly by several wayes of inoculation. 

The business of this chapter is, to shew the man- 
ner and time of performing each of these wayes. 

61 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

And first by seeds : chuse them from the fairest 
plants, full ripe, the day fair, and plants dry. Lay 
them in the sun and open air a little, some for rub- 
bing out, others for winning in their husks : and, as 
you should not sow fruits, kernels, nuts or stones, 
with their fleshy part on, but eat, or rub it off by 
rolling in sand, and then dry them a little ; so neither 
wash, weet, nor steep them ; neither keep any longer 
after they are ripe. Most part of them will keep 
till spring, but then many will lye till the next, 
especially stony seeds, berries, and kernells. I do 
not mean ash, holly, yew, mezerion, hawthorn, &c. 
which naturally lye a year longer, albeit sowen im- 
mediately when gathered ; yet even some of these, 
namely the holly, will lye sometimes a year longer 
than their usuall time, if the fleshy part be not 
rubbed off. 

I might say something of the timely interring of 
tulips and others, but I come to the manner of sow- 
ing : which is, to cover seed with the mould : of this 
there are several models, according to the nature 
of the seed, soil, season or fancy, either to sow the 
ground and turne the seed in under the furrow or 
by drawing trenches in the soil, and then drawing 
the earth over them with a haw ; or sowing the bed, 

62 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

ready drest, and hacking in the seed with the same 
instrument ; or by harrowing, raking with a rake, 
or drawing bushes over the sowed ground to cover 
the seed ; or to put off the surface of the whole bed 
with the rake-head, and sow thereon ; then draw on 
the mould again with the same ; and having cast up 
the furrows with a shovel, smooth the bed with the 
rake ; or make drills by lines in made-up beds, sow 
and cover the same with the rake-head, not dis- 
ordering the ranks ; or to set the single seeds with 
sticks by lines, or to sow the bed, and then to sift 
fine mould thereon, &c. 

Sow the strong and hardy deeper than the small 
and tender, and sow ebber at spring than before 
winter, and deeper in a light than a stiff soil. 

Albeit I use for the most part to plant and sow 
every species by themselves, yet you may sometimes 
use mixtures, as carrots and radish in one bed ; be- 
cause the radish may be gone ere the carrots require 
much room. Amongst new-set liquorish you may 
sow onyons, radish, lettice, parsley, carrots and 
par sneeps together, gathering each in their seasons ; 
the parsneeps will stay till winter ; and drop beat- 
rave or parsley in your onyon beds, to stay winter, 
after onyons are gone ; also beat-rave, skirrets,and 

63 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

beans at a considerable distance in the intervals of 
newly planted artichocks ; also at a great distance 
among cabbages, or in the edge of the furrows of 
other beds. 

The most natural time for sowing is, when the 
seeds, of their own accord, fall to the ground; never- 
theless, tho' many do well at this season, as stony- 
seeds, and such as can endure winter, yet the tender, 
which are many with us, do best in spring ; but for 
convenience, we sow at several other seasons, as in 
summer, at which time they require watering and 
shade ; and in autumn, which is the only season for 
some, which, if tender, require defence and shelter ; 
nor can we have others early at spring without hot- 
beds, which is required especially by such as come 
not to perfection in our short summer. 

Endeavour to sow when the soil is in good tem- 
per : a hot furrow is good, but some grounds will 
not harrow or rake when delv'd or plow'd, which, 
when exposed some time to air, frost, sun and 
showers, doth crumble and fall tender ; hence ought 
such to be prepared by fallowing ; see more par- 
ticularly the manner and season for each sort in 
their respective chapters following. 

Suckers are those which grow, run, spring off or 
64 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

about the mother-plant, whereof are made off-sets, 
by severing or parting them therefrom. 

Take off these on trees and shrubs, with a violent, 
but cleanly pull ; be careful of bulbous roots and 
anemonies, that you wound not the mother- 
plant. 

To force as are unapt to put forth suckers natur- 
ally, you may bair the root of those of a woody 
substance ; cut it into the pith, slit it down a little, 
and put in a stick to keep the gap open ; level in 
the earth again, so shall the slip raised spring, and 
so much the better, if there was an eye immedi- 
ately belowthe cut. When the fibres are grown, cut 
off this plant to live by it self. 

Another way is to cut the root through, a little 
distance from the tree, with a cleanly slop down- 
wards, and raise up the butt-end of the root so cut 
off, till it be a little above the surface ; as for root- 
graffing, hereafter to be described, level in and 
tread the earth again, so shall the piece left at the 
tree send forth young roots, and the root so cut and 
raised send out a top. 

Rich free earth for bulbs and other roots, will 
assist them to put forth suckers. 

Cutting the tops of fibrous-rooted herbs, in grow- 
65 5 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

ing-time, before they flower, will help them to off- 
set, and to last long too. 

The season for severing off-sets of hardie-trees 
that lose the leaf, is the latter end of October, 
and beginning of November; albeit, you may have 
them also any time till March, if the weather is 
open. 

For young tender trees, with hardie greens, let 
the winter frost be over, and before the sap rise. 
April is best for greens. 

Bulbous and tuberous-roots, when they have 
done springing, i.e. their stalks and leaves begin- 
ning to wither. 

All fibrous rooted herbes, when springing, and 
before they run up to flower ; altho' you may plant 
many after the flower is past, stalks and leaves cut, 
and they springing afresh. But the first spring is 
best. 

If drought, water shrubs and fibrous rooted 
plants upon their first planting ; at least shade them 
from the ensuing scorchings, by covering the sur- 
face with some vegetable or litter, and water the 
same thoroughly if needful. 

And though youmustwater fibrousand some bul- 
bous roots in drought, once in two or three dayes ; 

66 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

yet be sparing, and defend them from too much 
raine. 

To propagate by cuttings, is to cut off the branch 
or stem of a plant, and so set it in the earth with- 
out roots. 

Strip it of leaves and branches, twist the branch, 
if it not too brittle ; plant deeper than these with 
roots, and in a rich and moist soil, keeping it watered 
and shaded, until rooted ; cut off their tops, except 
greens, as if your cutting be twelve inches long, let 
nine be under, and three above ground. 

The better to effect the rooting, if a hard sub- 
stance, as yew, quince, &c. twist their ends a little, 
or cleave them a piece. If tender plants of great 
pith, as jasmines, July-flowers, &c. cut only at a 
joint or knot, and plant them, and cover these cut- 
tings, especially July-flowers or pinks, with bell- 
glasses, and in the sunshine shade them, nor suffer 
them to have any air until they are well rooted and 
are growing ; for air rots cuttings, but it is other- 
wise in layers. If large stems of pithy trees, as pop- 
lars, &c. sharp their ends down to a point, reserv- 
ing the bark whole on one side. 

If stock- July-flowers, slit the bark near the end 
in several parts round the stem, fold up the bark so 

67 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

cut, and, taking the peel'd part close off, plant the 
same with this bark, spread as you do a root. 

The time of planting cuttings is, if trees and 
shrubs, a little before they spring ; and if herbes, 
when springing, as above for off-sets ; and let the 
stems of July-flowers and wall-flowers be well shot, 
i.e. something firme, and take such as have not had 
a flower. 

To increase by laying, is to bend down some branch 
to the ground, and, with a hooked stick thrust into 
the ground, stay the same in its place, and cover 
with earth of deepness as you see fit. Let the soil 
be good, watered, and shaded in drought from the 
scorching sun, and sheltered in winter if needful. 

To force their rooting (if July-flowers) prune off 
the under and withered leaves, and cut it at a joynt 
into the pith, i.e. half way through, and slit it up to 
the next joynt; thrust down the cut part gently in- 
to the ground, making it fast, and cover it as before. 
If trees and shrubs, prick the rind full of holes at 
the place interred, or cut away the bark round at 
the same place ; but if the branch be small, use it as 
July-flowers, and if any refuse, bind them hard and 
fast above the slit with a piece of pack-threed or 
wyre, to stop the sap in its course, that it may pro- 

68 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

vide for rooting. Cut off all your tops as you lay 
them, except greens, and some very pithy trees. 

The time for laying all trees and shrubs that lose 
the leaf, is October, as also March, if secured from 
drought. All greens in April, which therefore must 
be shaded. July-flowers in March, April, or July. 

The trees or shrubs will be rooted that time twelve 
months, at which time transplant them. The July- 
flower slay ed in March maybe transplanted in July, 
or if layed in July may be transplanted next March 
or April. 

Circumposition is used in all cases, as laying, ex- 
cept only that the earth must be raised up to the 
branch, because it will not bend down to it. There- 
fore fasten a pot, a basket, old hat, or the like, on 
the tree, by a stake or some supporter ; let it have a 
hole initsbottome, through which you must put the 
branch to be propagated, and then fill the pot with 
rich earth, having ordered the branch, as before, 
to cause it root ; water it often. Willow-earth or 
rotten willow-sticks at the bottom of the pot, helps 
to retain the moisture. I have effected this with clay 
and cow's manure well mixt, after part of the bark 
has been taken off round, clapt about with a double 
or triple swaddling of straw, or hay ropes. 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

This a mid-summer as well as a spring work, and 
very notable for propagating such as can scarcely 
be otherwayes obtained. 

Grafting is to take a cyon of a tree, and place into 
another, call'd the stock, fit to receive the same, 
that the inward bark or rind of both may joyn, and 
the saps unite, &c. Whereof there are several way es, 
as, 

First, of grafting in the cleft ; saw off the head of 
the stock in a smooth place, about half a foot above 
ground, f or dwarf s and wall-trees ; as also standard 
appleandpear,(fortheywillshootupforabody),but 
betwixt three and four foot for standard-cherrie 
and plumb. Pare its head ragled by the saw smooth ; 
cleave it a little beside the pith, and with your pen- 
knife cut away any jags, roughness, or blackness, 
that remaines after cleaving on each side the cliff 
within ; then prepare the graff , by cutting on both 
sides from some knot or bud in forme of a wedge, 
suitable to the clif t, with little shoulderings, not rag- 
ling the end. For if the bark be raised at the tail or 
lower end of the graff, especially the cherrie, it im- 
pedes its growing ; cut off its top about three inches 
above the shoulderings, close behind a leaf -bud, then 
open the clif t with a grafting iron ; set the graff (or 

70 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

two graffs if the stock be great)in the clif t so as the 
inwardpartof therindof the graff may joyn exactly 
and close to the in ward part of the bark of the stock; 
andif it pinch, as great stocks will, bind it notas you 
must do the smaller. Or put in a little wedge gently 
to keep it ; take a slice of bark from the cut-off head, 
and cut a hole therein, so as it may slide on, and join 
round the butt of the graff, and cover the stock close 
over in forme of a hawk's hood. Lastly, cover it 
with clay, tempered with horse-manure that hath 
a little short litter in it, or with soft wax for smaller 
stocks. This is to preserve it from cold and drying 
\vinds, and from wet which harms most. 

Note. If the stock stands perpendicular, set the 
graff on the west-side ; if not, then place it on the 
upper side ; if you fear winds, support them with 
sticks, as splinters to a broken bone. 

Unbind, when you find their bands harme them, 
towards mid-summer ; at which tyme top such as 
have shot so large as to be in danger of breaking 
with the winds, especially these graff ed in the bark, 
hereafter to be described. 

Pull up suckers close and cleanly from the roots; 
also rub off buds that appear on the stock. Graffs 
cannot thrive or prosper, if the stocks be uncleanly 

71 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

or ill-thriving, and this is occasion'd through bad 
training. 

Another way of clift-graffing, is, to cleave the 
graff and not the stock. Thus : prepare the stock and 
graff as for shouldering (next described) then with 
the pen-knife cleave the inward face of the grass 
in the cut part, and cut up the stock with a slop, so 
that one lip of the clif t-cyon may be bound on the 
one side of the stock, and the other longer lip on 
the outside, as in shouldering. 

The graff sits here as on a saddle, with a leg on 
each side the stock, and therefore will better resist 
the winds ; as also, the wound caused by the clif t 
will sooner recover. I have them wholly healed 
the same year wherein I graffed them. 

Shouldering is to cut off the heads of the stock, 
and smooth it as at first ; then cut the graff from 
a knot or bud on one side, sloping about ane inch and 
a half long, with a shoulder, but not deep, that it 
may rest on the head of the stock. The graff must 
be cut from the shoulder, smooth and even, sloping 
gradually, that the lower end be thin ; place the 
shouldering on the head of the stock, and mark by 
the end of the cut part of the graff, and cut away 
so much bark off the stock as the graff did cover; 

72 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

then place both together, that the cut parts of both 
may joyn, and saps unite one on the other ; bind 
them close together with bass, and hood them with 
clay tempered with manure or wax, as before. 

Graffing in the bark may be used in greater stocks, 
or in re-graffing of old trees, and is only for apples, 
becauselaterinperforming,whichmaybethelatter 
bnd of April, when the bark of the stock will peel; 
for when both stock and graff is prepared, as in 
shouldering, instead of cutting away some bark off 
the stock, for receiving the graff, you must slit it 
011 the south-side from the top, almost as long as 
the sloped part of the graff, and loosen the bark at 
the top of the slit, with the point of the half round 
wedge, made a purpose, tapering downwards to a 
point ; which also thrust down between the bark 
and stock, to make room for the graff; but first cut 
a little bark at the thin end of the slop of the cyon, 
that it double not in going down, yet leave it with 
a sharp edge ; and because, when the cyon is put in, 
it will bear the bark hollow from the stock-nick or 
slit, press the bark on each side the cyon, so that 
it may fall close to the stock, and to the edges of 
the cyon, then bind and cover as before. 

Graffing by approach, is good for these that hold 
73 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

not well otherwayes ; but herein the stock must be 
placed so near the tree where the graffs are, that 
the branch may reach it; then you may clift or 
shoulder-graff the twig you mean to propagate into 
the stock ; and as soon as graff and stock do unite 
and are incorporated together, cut off the cyon or 
graff underneath, close to the graffed place, that 
it may subsist by the stock only. 

Root-graffing is, to take the twig of any tree you 
mean to propagate, and a piece of root of the same 
kind, cut and raised up a little, and graff them by 
shouldering, uniting the butt-ends of graff and root, 
causing the rind of the root joyn to the rind of the 
graff, and so bind them. The next year they may 
be transplanted to a nurserie : these will be easily 
dwarfed, and readily hold ; besides that the defect 
of stocks are supplied, and they are fit for trans- 
portation. 

There are many other wayes, but these nam'd 
are the most material. 

The time of grafting is, when the sap begins to 
stirr in the spring ; you must begin earlier with 
cherries and plumes, some later with pears, ending 
with apples. 

Choice not your graff from such trees as are ill- 
74 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

bearers, neither from such as have not come to bear 
at all ; but from constant and well-bearing trees, 
and the fairest and fullest of buds thereon. Let 
them have a piece of the precedent year's shoot, 
whereof make the tail and shouldering immediately 
below the butt of young wood ; and if the stock be 
large, make the graffs wholly of the last year's 
shoot : and such (having blowing buds actually 
upon them) I have seen bear fruit the same year. 
But some old bearing trees yield no graffs ; where- 
fore you may cut out some great branch, that it 
may shoot anew ; or rather takeoff the same branch 
by circumposition,and plant, and the new tree may 
furnish you with graffs. Cut your graffs, ere they 
sprout, and keep them or carry them with their 
ends in clay, or dry in a box, their tops being cutoff. 

Inoculation differs from the former wayes of 
graffing, and is most proper for apricoks and 
peaches : any sort will more readily hold by this 
than by graffing, except cherries ; they come quickly 
to be a tree : for I had a plum shoot above six foot 
ten inches the first year ; and tho' they miss, yet 
the stock is not the worse. Therefore, 

In some convenient and smooth part of the stock, 
at the same height as for graffing, with the pen-knife 

75 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

cut the rind overth wart, and from the middle there- 
of, gently slit the bark about an inch long, in form of 
a T, not wounding the stock ; then nimbly prepare 
the bud, by cutting off the leaf to a little of the tail; 
then slit the bark on each side, a little distance from 
the bud, and, about half an inch above and below 
the same, sharpen the end below, that it may the 
more easily go down ; and having a quill cut more 
than half way, about an inch long at the end, for 
dividing the bud and rind from the stalk, therewith 
take it off dexterously, and leave not the root 
behind ; for if you see a hole under the bud on the 
inside, the root is gone ; cast it away, and prepare 
another when the bud is ready ; then with a bone, 
made half round, and sharp at the point, tapering 
on one side, raise the bark or rind on each side the 
slit carefully, not hurting the inner rind, and with 
care put in the bud, thrusting it down till its top 
joyn with the cross cut ; then bind it close above 
and below the bud with dried rushes or bass. Or, 

You may slit the bark of the stock upwards from 
the cross cut. Or, 

Cut the edges of the bark about the bud of an 
oblong squair, and the bark of the stock fit to re- 
ceive the same. Or, 

76 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

Reserve one fourth of this squair piece of bark 
of the stock untaken off at the upper end, which 
must be raised, that the shield may slide up be- 
twixt the same and the stock, and so bind it gently, 
as before. 

The time for inoculation is, when the sap is most 
in the stock, namely from June till August ; near 
a month after unbind, i.e. cut through binding and 
bark, with a gentle slit on the back side of the stock 
leaving the binding to fall away of its own accords, 
at which time you will see which holds. In March 
following cut off the head of the stock four inches 
above the bud, and at that time twelve months, the 
stub too, that it may heal over the wound. You 
may prune as graffes, and pull up suckers, &c. See 
Chap. IV. for more. 

Choise your buds from good bearers, as before ; 
take them from the strong and well grown shoots 
of the same year, and from the biggest end of the 
same ; and if you must carry them far, first cut off 
their leaves and top of the stalks, and wrap them 
in moist leaves or grass. 

This much at present in general, for the time and 
manner of the several wayes of propagation. 

In planting all plants, prune their roots, that is, 
77 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

top them a little with a sharp knife, except aspar- 
gus. Also cut their heads, except greens, and tops 
of forrest trees ordain'd for timber ; but the side- 
boughes most, that the head may be proportion'd 
to the root. 

Plant no trees deep, (albeit some deeper than 
others); when their roots run near the surface, 
there they receive the beneficial influence of the 
sun and showres, which make vegetables fair and 
fruitful. 

Lay litter, or any like, above ground, the compass 
of their roots, especially the first year of planting : 
and indeed, all plants require some shelter and 
shade with moisture when first planted, till they 
get rooting and strength. 

Cut the leaves and stalks of flowers and herbes, 
when they are past flower or have yielded seed, nor 
at any tyme suffer too many ; rather purge them in 
tyme. Suffer no more branches, flowers, or fruits, 
on any tree or plant than the root can nourish per- 
fectly. 

Neither plant or sow every year the same plants 
on the same ridge or bed, for it improves them to 
be changed ; see more fully planting, pruning, pre- 
serving, &c. in their respective places following. 

78 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 
CHAPTER II 

HOW TO CULTIVATE AND PREPARE GROUNDS 

HAVING shew'd the several wayes of propagating 
plants, it is also most requisite that you prepare the 
ground for effectuating the same. And that is, in 
the first place, 

To trench it, viz. begin at one end of the ground, 
(you mean thus to cultivate and open) by a trench 
from one side thereof to the other, three or four foot 
broad, from one to two foot deep, as the quality of 
the ground admits, and the plants require, as liquor- 
ish, which must have it deeper. This being opened, 
measureoff otherf our f ootparallel at its side, turne 
that into the open trench, with the turf or surface 
in the bottome and the clean earth on the top ; the 
filling whereof emptieth another ; therefore cut off 
other four foot, and turne in as before ; thus trench 
by trench till the whole be finished. I presume you 
carry the earth of the first trench to fill the last, or 
have other wayes filled hollo wes there with, and left 
the last trench open (if convenient) for receiving 
weeds. Or if the ground be hollow in the middle, 
begin there, and trench both wayes to help the level ; 
if high in the middle, begin at both sides or ends, till 

79 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

the two open trenches meet at the height, for the 
same reason. 

The latter end of harvest the ground is softest for 
trenching, and it lying all winter open to the wea- 
ther is thereby meliorated. For as trenching doth 
well prepare hard, barren, and untoil'd ground, so 
doth it such as is exhausted by long and unskilful 
usage ; and if at every trenching you apply proper 
manures mixt with the second spading, or under 
the last shovelling, and in five years re-trench, it 
will become to your wish, for all gardens, and plan- 
tations. 

The next excellent way of preparing ground, is 
fallowing : begin as soon as you reap the crop; but 
let the ground be something moist, altho' you should 
stay for a sho wre ; if it be not late in autumne, you 
may fallow in November, especially if stiff ground, 
and re-stirre in March or April when you plant or 
sow: and altho' you should neither plant nor sow 
it that year, keep it clean of weeds in summer by 
hawing, &c. and at autumne fallow again ; but as 
intrenching, so in this work, you should mix it with 
proper soil. 

Make use of the English fashion of spades, which 
are now common, and let every two delvers have a 

80 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

shoveller to cast up the small mould that falls in the 
bottom of the furrow; and the delvers should turne 
up the point of the spade, and nimbly break and chop 
all the clods thoroughly ; this is very material, as 
well as the thorough mixing of the manures with 
the soil ; so that mixing, stirring, re-stirring and 
fallowing, is most pertinent for the cold, chilled, 
barren, rugged-natur'd ground in Scotland, all 
which softens and tenders it, and so fits it for nour- 
ishing good seeds and plants, as I can tell experi- 
ence ; therefore, 

I advise our husband-men also to the fallowing 
of their land as one requisite; slit-folding the same, 
as a second ; watering or overflowing the land, as 
a third; burning the turf , as a fourth ; draining ex- 
cessive moisture, as a fifth ; applying proper soils 
and manures, and thatat proper seasons, as a sixth ; 
laying the land to rest, as a seventh ; and above all, 
inclosing and planting about their land, as the last 
and best improvement. 

Example : At the autumnal fallowing, delve or 
plow deep, and apply hot unrotted and uncom- 
pounded manures ; at spring re-plow or re-delve, 
and apply such manures as have layn mixed and 
rotted with earth ; then mix, rake or harrow. The 

81 6 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

summer following is to destroy the weeds, and that 
may be done by turf, plough or hawing. 

The husbandmen's slit-folding is equivalent to 
gard'ners covering the surface, especially of dry 
and barren ground, with litter &c. The manure of 
cattle washes evenly into ground, and should be 
turned down by the summer and autumnal fallow- 
ing, lest its substance exhaust by the sun and air, 
except that for grass, then only harrowed with a 
bush of thorns ; instead whereof gard'ners should 
top their coverings of litter with a little earth or 
sand, and at autumne delve all down together. 

Husbandmen's watering is, by running plough- 
furrowes and trenches where needful, alongst or 
cross their land, so as the water may gently sweem 
over the whole. This is to be done in the winter on 
dry and barren grounds, which leaves a sulphureous 
deposit behind it, and strongly improves either for 
grass or corn ; but what this husbandry ought as 
well to be practised on wet grounds, is evident, be- 
cause the running of this carryes away the sour 
quality of the other. I shall speak of gard'ners 
watering more particularly. 

Burning land is, to pare its surface with the turf- 
plough, and lay the same in heaps to burn, and so 

82 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

spread the ashes. But if moss and heath, set fire 
through, without turfing it; this destroys the noxi- 
ous sour nature, and the salt remains in the ashes, 
for the strengthening the spirit of the earth. 

Draining the wet, bogie or dropsical ground, is, 
by trenches a little deeper than the spring, (how 
deep soever), and then apply lyme, soot, ashes, 
pigeon manure, &c. As for the abounding of super- 
ficial water, that is easily helped by common water- 
sowers, or in some grounds by sinking holes down 
to the channel. 

As the husbandman should have his land layed 
out or divided into several closes, some for corn, 
some for meadow, and others for pasture ; so when 
he has taken five, six, or seven crops of corn, he 
should lay it out for pasture, otherwayes it will 
wear out of heart; and likewayes the pasture must 
be plowed up for corn, especially when it begins to 
grow mossie. 

The way that the gard'ner turns his ground to 
rest, is by trenching and re-trenching, whereby it 
can never wear out, albeit, he must also observe to 
change the crops as well as the husbandman. 

How to enclose and plant your land see Chap. IV. 

Among all the varieties of soils, that next the sur- 
83 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

face of them is best, because prepared by the in- 
fluence of the sun and showers. 

That called a loam or light brick earth, is the most 
natural ground for gardens and plantations; strong 
blue, white, or reid clayes are worst. But the nearer 
they are to a mixture of loam, or if they have stones 
naturally in them, they are the better : also the 
nearer gravelly or sandy grounds incline to loam, 
so much the better. Therefore if your ground be 
stiff, trench with ferns, straw, bean-ham, thatch, 
litter, earth under wood-stacks, small sticks, &c. 
If gravelly or sandy, then trench and mix with loam 
or the upper part of clay ; the turf of both is good. 

If strong clay, trench and mix with fat sand, high- 
way earth that hath drift-sand in it, rubbish of 
buildings, lime-rubbish, gravel, &c. And if it be 
for gardens or orchards, enrich it with manures 
mixt with drift-sand, or light mould heaped up 
stratum super stratum, i.e. laying by laying. And 
if the ground be cold, the more pigeons and poul trie- 
manure you put upon it, the lighter and warmer 
it will be. Or make stratums of earth, manure, and 
unslaked lime-stones to ly a year, and then apply 
this composition, which has been hitherto a great 
secret : therefore prize it. 

84 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

Binding grounds, which will not rake as you delve, 
if dry and hard, trenching and fallowing exposeth 
them to be softened by weather as is said. But if 
wet and tough, mix with ashes, sea-sand, &c. in cul- 
turing. 

For preparing my composts, I use a pit, wherein 
sometimes I make a hot-bed, made oblong, about 
four foot deep, as I set manures, vegetables, and 
soils to fill it. Here I lay all kindes or sorts with 
stratumsof earth, as horse, neat, sheep, pigeons and 
poultrie-manure, ferns, weeds, leaves, soot, ashes, 
sticks, saw-dust, feathers, hair, bones, urine, scour- 
ing of pondes, ditches, blood, pickle, brine, sea- 
water, the cleansing of a house or office, &c. I let 
them lye a year at least, but not above two. Then 
I take them out, and then stirre, air, mingle and 
work them with fresh earth or by themselves, as 
I have occasion, till they become sweet and of an 
agreeable scent, yet retaining their virtue ; this 
frees them from the noxious qualities they other 
wayes retaine, and consequently are not so apt to 
gender or produce worms, weeds, and mushrooms, 
instead of wholsome and pleasant plants, fruits, and 
roots for the table. 

Observe what manures are proper for the soil. 
85 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

All hot-manures are proper for cold, stiff, and moist 
grounds. So all rotten and cold manures are proper 
for dry and hot grounds. All manures that retain 
moisture, are for poor, sandy and gravelly soils. 

Horse-manure is for stiff and cold ground ; sheeps 
for hot and dry ; ashes for cold, stiff and moist ; old 
woollen-rags for poor and dry ; lyme is most ex- 
cellent for moorish and heathy land ; hair of beasts 
for dry and stiff ground ; pigeons and poultrie-man- 
ure for cold and moist ; rotten saw-dust for dry ; 
rubbish of buildings for stiff cold grounds ; salt for 
cold and moist, but use it moderately, for it destroys 
vegetables on dry ground, especially at first, but 
when melted by winter-rains, it f ertilizeth : some 
have sowen it on moist moorish land to great ad- 
vantage, for being f arr from the sun they have little 
volatile. 

In your applications you are to consider, that 
rotten-manures are proper for trees and such slow 
growing plants, andun-rottenmanuresf or annuals, 
they being of quick digestion. 

Let not the root of any tree stand on manure, far 
less unrotten-manure, which burns them ; but upon 
prepared and proper soil, and composed, well mixed, 
aired, stirred or fallowed. Most fit is the cleansing 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

of streets and high ways, together with the mud and 
scouring of pondes and ditches. If first laid on heaps 
in the open air to rot and sweeten, and if you mix 
it with strata of lyme, that adds much to its good- 
ness and fertility. 

Forest-trees require not so much manure as fruit- 
trees ; but well mixed and fallowed soil. 

Kitchen-herbes and roots require very fat, light, 
warme, and well-cultured ground. 

Flowers and fine plants cannot endure soil too 
rank with manure, neither can they prosper if it 
be poor ; but fresh, clean earth, with rotten neats- 
manure, well beaten and mixed together, and a 
little rotten willow-earth a little below the roots : 
then comes in that delicate soil, the turf of the pas- 
ture, mix'd with a little lyme, cow's and sheeps-man- 
ure, well rotted and mingled as before. See more 
particularly what soil each kind or sort of plant de- 
lights in, or loves best, in their respective chapters 
and sections following. 

As for making the hot-bed for raising early and 
tender plants, dig a pit four foot deep, because in 
the spring the ground is often wet in this country, 
and of length and breadth as you have occasion, in 
a convenient and warm place, lying well to the sun 

87 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

and sheltered from winds, which you may keep by 
art, if not naturally so ; fill it with manure and lit- 
ter from the stables, about a fortnight's gathering, 
and, when well trodden, and even on the top, lay 
about four inches thick of rich, light, but fresh and 
clean, sifted mould thereon. Arch it over with sticks, 
and cover it with mats four or five dayes to cause it 
heat ; then uncover and give it air a day or two, that 
its violent heat may pass off ; then sow your seeds 
and cover the bed again. And the next day, if you 
find the bed too hot, give it more air ; if too cold, 
cast some straw on the covering, untill the heat re- 
turne ; thus, by airing and covering, you may keep 
it in a constant temper. When the seeds come up, 
give them air to dry the moisture raised up by the 
heat of the bed. How to cover the seeds with glasses 
see Chap. VI. But as there is great trouble in right- 
ly ordering this sort of hot-bed ; so it is here remedied 
by a better, which is only to fill and tread the pit 
full of new manure and litter, not covering it with 
earth, and place wooden cases therein, about nine 
or ten inches deep, and about three foot broad, 
having wood-handles at the end ; bore them full of 
auger or wimble-holes at the bottome, and fill them 
wi th the f or esaid earth, and therein sow your seeds ; 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

instead of these some use baskets or pots, which 
are very fit. But these cases with the earth in them 
must be kept warme during the whole season, 
wherein a hot-bed is necessary ; and if they lose 
heat, add fresh manure and litter under, about and 
betwixt the cases, consequently the trouble of trans- 
planting from one hot-bed to another is hereby 
saved. There is dew on the glasses while the heat 
remains, but if exhausted, they will be dry. Provide 
a shelter over the whole, if you please, and frames 
of glass over some of the inside cases, where there 
is most need ; others you may leave open, as your 
seeds require. By this your pit and cases are every 
year ready to your hand, requiring only a supply 
of fresh manure. But this pit will be so much the 
more excellent, if lyn'd round at the sides with brick : 
and where you can conveniently sink it for water, 
you may build the same above ground. And when 
this pit is empty, it will be also ready for wintering 
of flower-pots, with July-flowers, &c. 

In watering plants, use not well-water, especially 
for tender plants, neither rivers that run long and 
quick on sharp gravel : these yield no nourishment 
to plants, but rather chills them; therefore if you 
must use such, let them stand some time in the sun 

89 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

and open air, uncovered in tubs, mixt with manure, 
and powr it off the dreg when you use it. 

When manure lyes above ground about any 
plants, as I use to do with trees, artichocks, &c. the 
water descending through the same is very relish- 
ing to the roots, if you powr the water at a little 
distance round the tree ; for, when lashed on the 
stem, it washeth the earth from the roots. 

Water no plants with standing, stinking ditch- 
water, nor any water that stinketh : rain-water and 
large ponde-water is excellent, but keep it not too 
long ; yet, if in a large vessel, the of tener you stir 
it, the longer it will keep sweet. So the larger your 
pondes or rivers be, and the opener to the sun and 
air, and the more moved by horse, geese and ducks, 
in their sweeming, the sweeter it will be. And, if 
the washings of stables, streets, dung-hill water, &c. 
run into them, that adds much to their fertility, 
providing they have some stirring, to make them 
sweet. 

If you fear dry weather, differre not too long, 
but water while your ground is yet moist ; differre 
not if you mind to water at all. These that root deep- 
est, water most; and also when you begin, continue 
it as long as you find occasion. In watering trees 

90 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

and greater plants stir and waken the earth a little 
about their roots with a fork, so it may drink the 
more evenlier, minding to tread it firme again. 
And for the same cause you may sink the earth a 
little, in forme of a shallow dish, round your cole- 
flowers, artichocks, &c. Dip your flower-pots in a 
tub of water, to drink through the holes at the 
bottome. 

When you water beds of small seeds with the 
watering pot, shake it nimbly, that it may fall like 
a showre of small rain. I have often made use of a 
handful of small straw or hay, drawen as thatch, 
tyed in the middle, and at one end powred water 
with a cup, and shaken the same, that it appeared 
like a gentle bedewing rather than a glutting rain. 

Some !that are desirous to have the ground al- 
wayes moist about any plant, generally place near 
it a vessel with water, and in it a piece of woollen 
clothe, with one end thereof hanging out to the 
ground, and the other in the water. The cloth being 
first wet, it will drop continually, if the end with- 
out be lower than that within the vessel ; and when 
the water within fails, it may be augmented. If it 
drop not fast enough, the clothe may be increased, 
if too fast diminished. 

91 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

Early in the spring while the weather is yet cold, 
I intreat you to be cautious in watering the leaves 
of the young and tender plants, only wet the ground 
about them. When your plants or seeds are more 
hardy and the nights yet cold, water in the fore- 
noons ; but when the nights are warme, or dayes 
very hot, then the evening is the best time. 

Plant in wet, and sow in dry; I do not mean over 
wet or over dry. Withall let them have good air, 
which conduceth much to their health and life, 
without which nothing can live. 

CHAPTER III 

HOW TO PROPAGATE AND ORDER FORREST-TREES 

OMITTING here the distinction of species, (having 
confin'd them to one chapter), I shall speak briefly, 
yet, I hope, plainly, of their government, thus : 

Albeit the most of f orrest-trees may be increased 
by suckers, layers, &c., yet if you desire trees worth 
your while, raise them from the seed. Therefore 
prepare a seminary or seed-plot, together with a 
nurserie well ordered and handsomely made up in 
beds, as in Part L, Chap. IV. And there sow and set 
your seeds and plants in their respective seasons ; 
keep them clean from weeds, and water them when 

92 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

need is. Also dig up and dibble in these cast up by 
the frosts, as well as shade and shelter them in time 
of necessity. Let them stand, some but one, others 
two years in the seminary after they rise; then 
remove and plant in the nurserie, in distance a foot 
one way, half a foot the other, or five rowes in the 
bed (if six foot broad) in straight lines, having first 
prun'd their roots, especially toped the main root 
that runs straight down ; so shall they send f urth 
syde or seeding roots and agree well with trans- 
planting thereafter. Also proportion the head to 
the root, by pruning up the side boughes, reserving 
some of the smallest afterwards all the way on the 
body, to stop the sap in its course, that the tree may 
grow great with its hight, and this will prove the 
best fortification against the winds. 

Cut not the tops of these trees you ordain for 
timber, except some grow crooked in the nurserie ; 
these, save greens, may be fell'd near the ground 
in the spring, or at mid-summer, and train up the 
streightest shoot again to be the tree. When they 
have stood three years at most in this nurserie, re- 
plant them at a wider distance in spade-bit trenches, 
three foot one way, and two the other, where they 
may stand till they be ready for planting out in 

93 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

your avenues, parks, groves, &c. which will be in 
three years, if these rules be observed. But if you 
think them yet too small for setting out, you must 
transplant them at a wider distance, and at every 
removal top all their roots with a sharp knife, and 
thin the side-boughes for lightening the head ; but 
do not prune all up, as is the custom of ignorants, 
whose trees are so long, small and top-heavy, that 
they cannot stand. But of pruning more hereafter. 
If you neglect this transplanting and pruning the 
top-root, while young, your essayes to do it when 
old will prove ineffectual, nor will they ever be 
worth the while. 

All the time that your trees remain in the nur ser ie, 
and at least the first and second year thereafter, 
be careful to cleanse them from weeds and suckers, 
by delving, hawing, &c. The advantage here will 
soon counter-balance the cost. 

Choice your seeds from the high, streight, young, 
and well- thriving trees ; and the fairest, weyghtiest 
and brightest thereon ; for it is observed, that the 
seeds of hollow trees (i.e. trees whose pith is coii- 
sum'd) do not fill well, or come to perfection, as 
Langf ord sayes of pears, concluding that the kir- 
nells of fruits depend much upon the pith. And 

94 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

I bid you reject such as were never set by art, as 
peevish parents for children, that must be thus ac- 
commodat with uncouth lodgings, as well as dyets 
in their travels : It's a mischief in many people, 
that accompts all things ridiculous that they have 
not been bred up with, or accustom'd to ; so with 
trees in some respect. 

As for oak, the acorns which we set from * put 
forth a lustier root than ours ; nor do I approve of 
them in natural woods; they ripe beginning of Oc- 
tober ; gather them in a dry day, and lay in some open 
room to dry a moneth, turning them with a broom ; 
then lay them in a couch of dry sand till the latter 
end of February; dibble them in the ground two 
inches deep, twelve rowes on the bed, if six foot 
broad; they will come up the same season; and al- 
though they will grow on any ground, yet they grow 
better on the best, that is, a good loamy earth. Order 
them as is directed in the nurserie. 

The elm that grows with a clean and taper body 
is best worthy your care. We have extraordinary 
clean and smoothed barked elms from Holland; but 
I think they take more paines in preparing and mak- 

* A blank space has been left in both the first and second 
editions. A. H. H. 

95 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

ing the earth fine for them, which certainly is most 
conducible to their smoothness. Their seed falls 
the beginning of June, tho' it doth not fill every 
year; when they begin to fall, gather them and 
spread on a clothe a little, then sow them immedi- 
ately promiscuously over the bed, and very thick, 
covered with near an inch of earth ; I had them 
come up within ten dayes ; they love a light earth 
something moist. 

The ash seed is ripe in November and December; 
having spread them a little to dry, put them in a 
hole stratum super stratum of earth and seed; take 
them out at spring come twelve moneths, and sow 
them as elm, for then they rise, and love a tender 
soil not too moist. 

The great maple, commonly, but falsely called 
plane, its seed is ripe in September ; sow it at spring, 
it comes up that season; affects a soil with ash, or 
rather better. 

The smaller maple is rather for hedges ; its seed 
lyes as ash. 

The beech seed ripes the end of September, but 
it fills not well every year, nor are we so very plenti- 
ful of old trees as could be wished; for that cause 
we send abroad for seed. As soon as it comes to our 

96 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

hand it may be sowen, or rather keept in a couch 
of sand, as the great maple, till the spring ; for it 
comesupthat season; it affects alight soil, no clay es. 

The walnut and chesnut, albeit they be fruit- 
trees, I plant without the orchard walls ; their nuts 
ripe in the beginning of October. When they begin 
to fall, take them off , and rub off the outward husk, 
but do not weet them; then order them as acorns 
they come up the first season, and affect a light 
loamy earth. I could wish for more of the seed of 
horse-chesnuts from Turkie. 

The black cherrie or geen is a tree that I love well 
in avenues and thickets; there is a sort at Niddrie- 
castle, where I was born, seven miles west from Edin- 
burgh, whose fruit is preferable to any cherrie : I 
take it for a sort of heart, but it's a great bearer 
(which propertie the heart-cherrie wants), they are 
best stocks for standard cherries. The learned Eve- 
lyn and the ingenious Cook take notice of this 
tree. 

Gather their fruit when full ripe, the beginning 
of August; eat off the fleshy part, i.e. the fruit, and 
lay the stones to dry a little ; then lay them by 
stratums with earth, which prepares them, if sow'd 
at spring, to rise that season, otherwayes, they ly 

97 7 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

till the next. They affect a light, sharp soil, and, if 
you may, mix it with compost, and then it shall be 
fit for cherries of all sorts. 

The wild service, commonly called rons-tree, their 
fruit ripes in September, which you may eat or rub 
off by rolling in sand ; then prepare and sow them 
as cherrie. They love a moist ground or shade not 
wet; if you will plant them in better soil in avenues, 
methinks they would be very pleasant, when spread 
over with their umbel-f ashion'd bright red fruit. 

The line or lidne tree commonly called lym, the 
broad leafed, with odoriferous flowers is best ; the 
seedripes the beginning of October, but fills not well 
every year with us ; andindeed wehavebutf ew that 
come to any considerable perfection ; yet I have seen 
them bear seed at Hamiltoun: it should be a little 
dryed in an open room, and couched in moist sand 
till winter pass, and then sow'd in a little shade in 
May ; they must not be too much exposed to the 
scorching sun. They come up the same season ; but 
if not prepared through the winter, they lie till the 
next. They love a fresh loamie earth, and, in plant- 
ing them, I advise you to cover the surface of the 
earth about them with litter, topt with earth, the 
first year at least. 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

The hornbeam may be ordered as small maple ; 
they like a dry stiff ground ; they are for copses. 

The hassell and filboards' seed or nuts are used as 
walnuts ; they delight in dry banks, nor are they 
stately f orrest-trees. 

The birch is a proper tree for much of our poor, 
dry and barren grounds. I never raised any of them 
by seed, in the wood they are so plentie by suckers, 
&c. Many of these handsome trees I have planted 
successfully. 

The seed of the bean-trefoil, vulgarly called pease- 
cod-tree, ripes in October ; and being kept dry all 
winter, and sown at spring, it comes up that season, 
and affects a moist ground, but sweet. 

The white poplar, vulgarly called abele, is a quick 
grower and pleasant tree ; so is aspen ; they are 
easilie propagated by cuttings, so is the last by 
suckers : see Chap. I., Part II. They love a good soil, 
something moist. 

The alder is so propagable,and loves the marshes; 
and so are the willowes, sallows, and oziers, they all 
affecting a moist ground, and must be so kept till 
rooted. 

But I come to greens ; as, 

The pine-tree and pinaster s, whose husks you may 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

expose to the sun till they open, and seeds fall out, 
are to be sowen in March ; but, if late before they 
come home, (they require the summer sun to open 
them), if you then sow, they cannot get strength 
sufficient to withstand the ensuing winter ; there- 
fore keep them in dry sand all winter, and sow them 
in the spring, for they rise that season where in they 
are sowed. They love a good and tender soil ; they 
are something tender while young, (as all greens 
are) ; the great pine is tenderer than pinasters, and 
nice in transplanting ; therefore observe the rule 
in Chap. VII. Shade and shelter in both extremi- 
ties of heat and cold while young. But there is none 
so proper for us as, 

The Scots firre : many a one of their husks have I 
gathered any time between January and the latter 
end of March ; lay them on a cloth in the sun which 
opens them, to be sowen the latter end of Aprile 
They come up that season, and love a soil with the 
pinus. See how to order in nurserie : for they must 
be dibbled in again the first year, as spued up by 
frosts. They of any tree will grow on most sorts of 
ground, if well ordered and prepared, and secured 
from drought the first year. And therefore help 
where it is not to purpose, (they will repay you or 

100 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

yours for your pains) ; if you plant in gravelly, or 
dry sandy ground, mix it with clay and turf e a large 
distance round about the roots ; or, if in stiff and 
moist clayes, trench eight or nine foot on each side 
round the compass of the roots, adding small gravel, 
fat sand, &c., and plant ebb. But enough of this in 
the last chapter. 

The silver fir is so ordered: only it is tender 
while young and subject to blasting. 

The pitch-tree (as common firre) is a hardie tree, 
and no wonder; seeing, as I am informed, it growes 
by nature plentifully in Norraway. 

The yew is also a hardie tree, and only requires 
some defence while young ; their berries ripe in 
November : rub off the flesh or clammy substance, 
and lay them to dry a little, (but not by the fire), 
then box them stratum super stratum of earth and 
seed, placing them in the shade till the spring come 
twelve moneths ; at which time sow them, and then 
they spring. It affects a good soil, not stiff. 

The holly is to be used as yew, for they ly as long ; 
it's the most proper for hedges of all plants in the 
world. Next thereunto is the hawthorne, (tho' not 
a green), whose seed ripes in October, and is to be 
used as holly; for it riseth not till spring come 

101 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

twelve moneths : and the better you prepare and 
mix the ground, the larger will they shoot. Nor let 
any imagine, that holly also loves not manured 
ground; nay, (say they), poor and gravelly soil: but 
I know the contrary by experience. 

I shall speak of some shrubs in Chap. VII. for I 
must leave them here, and come to shew you how 
to transplant and prune the stately forrest- trees. 

In transplanting, remove with earth about their 
roots, if you can, especially greens : at least take all 
the roots up a good distance from the stem, by 
making a trench round, but be not hastie. Then top 
all their roots with a sharpe knife, the slop tending 
down as a horse foot ; cut off all the bruised and 
broken parts till you come at firme wood ; top the 
small roots like hair to make them stiff, so as they 
fold not when the earth is put in, and rot thereby. 
Proportion the head to the root by thinning it, 
prune the side-boughs, reserving alwayes some for 
tapering the tree : these you may cut close and 
smooth by the body, slanting upwards, and they 
will soon over-grow the wounds, if the branch cut 
off be not great. Cut notthe topsof oaks or beeches, 
they cannot endure it, neither any tree that you 
ordain for timber ; albeit I have been necessitate 

102 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

to lop great old trees, whose heads could not other- 
wayes be conf orm'd to their roots, which necessarily 
are diminished upon removal. But this is not the 
case of well-trained trees in a nurserie. 

The rule for removing old large trees out of woods 
or other places, who were never before transplanted, 
is to make a trench at two sides of the tree, at a 
considerable distance, till you can force the tree 
upon one side ; then cut the top root through, sav- 
ing as many collateral roots as you can ; lessen its 
head, or top it, if it will suffer, and so set up the 
tree again, and tread in the earth about it, as it was. 
Let it stand two years to emit fibrous or feeding 
roots to nurse it when planted out. 

But to my nursed trees again. When you remove, 
as is directed, carry them as quickly to their new 
quarters as you can. Let the soil where you set 
them be as connatural to the nurserie as possible ; 
see the last chap, for preparing grounds. For the 
orderlie wayes of planting see Part I. Chaps. II. 
& III. 

The best way is to make the holes a year before 
you plant, and in summer stirr and turne their earth, 
that no weeds grow thereon. Make them betwixt 
twelve and eighteen inches deep, and betwixt four 

103 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

and eight foot diameter, if ordinarie trees. But if 
the ground be bad, and not proper for the trees, 
then trench, mix and apply, till such becomes more 
agreeable. 

When you plant, lay the surface in the bottome 
and fill up the hole with fine earth, till it can only 
admit the upper part of the root to stand level with 
the surface ; (this is not to plant deep, for they that 
do but cheat themselves). Then set on the root of 
the tree in the middle of the hole, and if no earth 
adhere to the same, make a little hut in the middle 
of small earth, and so lay the roots right spread 
round about with your hands, that none ly folded 
or disorderly ; then put in fine small earth amongst 
the roots, and shake and move the tree, so that the 
earth may go in amongst them till no cavity or void 
be left to let in the air ; such roots as fold, raise up 
and level in their wonted posture with your hands, 
shovelling on more earth, and tread gently ; then 
fill one more, and tread well with your heels, till it 
be as f arr filled up about it as it stood in the earth 
before ; make the bulk about level on the top, and 
just the breadth of the hole, and it will be about 
half a foot above the surface, if ordinary nursed 
trees and good ground. You may put on the round- 

104 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

ing-string to make its edges circular and handsome, 
or, if you will to make it like a geometrical squair, 
then straight lines from side to side of a thicket will 
make up the bulks, that the whole will appear as 
walks and bordures two wayes. Lay new horse- 
manure, and litter or ferns above the bulk, so as it 
touche not the stem, covered with a little earth to 
keep it from drying : the rains will wash in its sub- 
stance, and refresh the roots. Besides, it keeps out 
summer droughts and winter frosts. 

The first year at least go through, now and then, 
and tread them right after winds. I am not for 
staking trees, but for training them so as they may 
not need it, except you drive three stakes about 
each tree at the outside of the bulk ; then the double 
straw-roaps tyed from its body to all three stakes 
will secure it : and if you fasten cross-sticks, briers 
and thorns, this shall be a fence about each tree. 
Rub off buds that offer to break f oorth near the 
root, or any place where you would not have them ; 
but still leave some here and there on the side to 
stop the sap from running too much in head ; keep 
them clean of suckers and weeds, by hawing in sum- 
mer, and delving, and loosening the mould about 
them in spring and autumn, i.e. at the two equi- 

105 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

noxes; and tread them fast again, as fearing 
drought and winds. 

Observing what is said, you may expect ornamen- 
tal, clean, and well-thriving trees, if right prun'd, 
and well inclosed. 

Neglect not your time of early planting, that is, 
as soon as they give over growing, and before the 
frosts come on, and you shall see them far outstrip 
these set in the spring, though I have often planted 
in the spring through necessity ; but then I was al- 
wayes something more than ordinary careful to 
defend them from the ensuing droughts, by cover- 
ing their bulks, watering, &c., yet I preferre the 
spring for firr and other such greens, which there- 
fore unavoidably require the same care. 

I shewed before how to prune in the nurserie 
while young ; now continue it when planted out : 
whilst they are small, prune every year ; when a 
little older, once in two years ; then once in four, 
and never seldomer than in five or six. 

And as you prune up the body tillit arrives at the 
desired height, leave small branches here and there 
by the way, that it may bring greatness with its 
height, and be by consequence the more able to 
stand ; let never a tree get a greater head than its 

106 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

root is sufficiently able to nurse and bear ; neither 
be rash in loping them, except they be already top- 
heavy, which brings crookedness ; if so, cut at a 
crooked place, slanting upwards, clean and smooth, 
and train up the straightest shoot again to be the 
tree ; or rather if you can save its head by thinning, 
viz. cut the under-side thus at mid-summer, and slit 
the bark in the spring, so may it grow straight and 
taper. Purge still the head when needful, and prune 
superfluities ; cut off all that cross, rub, fret, and gall 
one another. Permit not trees to fork; train them 
with one straight and taper body, and a handsome, 
round, pyramidicalhead. And when you prune, cut 
close and smooth by the body or bough with the 
knife, or chissell and mell ; or, if the branch be great, 
cut with a saw, nicking it first underneath, and 
smooth it with the chissell, so will it the better heal. 
But if the tree be very old, and the branches great, 
such will never be able to overgrow the wound ; 
therefore if you must cut such, do it at a little dis- 
tance from the body, the wound declining to the 
horizon. Thus train pines, firrs, pitch, and these of 
the conical tribe in stories only, which methode they 
naturally follow ; you may cut out some of the great- 
est branches of the under storie, but so as you leave 

107 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

them regular or equally furnished round ; so may 
you leave one storie, cut out the second, leave the 
third, &c. Cut not their tops, yet you may crop some 
of their side-boughes, if the tree be top-heavy, and 
afterwards, as the tree gets footing, cut these clean 
off. 

There be two seasons for pruning such as lose the 
leaf: the first for those of little pith, is October and 
November, or any time in winter; and for those of 
soft wood and great hearts, and greens, let the frosts 
be over, and before the sap in them rise, except firrs, 
and other rosinous trees, which must be prun'd in 
November ; because if prun'd in March they bleed, 
and in September and October they have not given 
over growing. 

The second time is mid-summer, which is ordin- 
arily about the end of June ; this is a safe time to 
prune those of great pith, and such as are unapt to 
bleed; but especially for young shoots of this year: 
extirpate all such buds and shoots as you desire not 
to grow, and hereby you may make clean bodied 
trees, albeit never so apt to break out in side- 
boughes, as some elms are. For the diseases of all 
trees, with their cures, see Chap. V. 



108 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 
CHAPTER IV 

OF HEDGES AND INCLOSURES 

As there is no countrey can have more need of 
enclosing than this, so none is more needful of en- 
closing; for we well know how vain it is to plant, 
unless we inclose. 

I spoke of brick and stone-walls ; now for hedges 
I prefer holly and hawthorn, raised from seed, al- 
beit there be several others. Mix not hedges, be- 
cause strong-growers over-grow the weak; neither 
suffer briers, brambles, docks, or thissels therein. 

Your hollies having stood two years in the semin- 
ary, and two in the nurserie, remove them by a 
tr o wall, or a spade, with a clod of earth at their roots, 
croping such roots as appear without the clod with 
a sharp knife, and lessen its head by croping the 
side-boughes, but cut not its top ; plant it in made 
up bordures, or at the back of ditches, at a foot dis- 
tance, in good earth. Let them stand two years un- 
touched, except weeded : then cut their tops at a 
bud to make them furnish thick, and ply their side- 
boughes to grow through one another, like slicing 
or feathering ; and next year fall to work with the 
sheers, cutting both sides and tops as we used to 
do with box, &c. never supporting or binding any 

109 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

hedge, as is the custom of some. Plant your hollies 
in Aprile, and, when ready for the sheers, cut in May 
and July therewith, and so train them close from 
the bottome, but neither too broad nor too high. 

The hawthorn having stood two or three years in 
the seminary, pull them up, and cut the ends of their 
roots, and their tops within four inches of the root, 
and plant them within the fence or back of the 
ditches in the good earth ; delve them in spading, 
by spading all alongst two rowes, at a foot distance, 
standing in equilateral triangles, still thickening 
your bordure by adding good earth, &c. Let them 
stand three years untouched, except weeding and 
repairing where any is dead ; then fell them with- 
in half a foot of the ground, so will they shoot forth 
a thicket of young shoots, which next year may be 
train'd with the sheers as before is instructed. 

If you would plant your hedge on the face of a 
ditch as in wet and tough grounds, then streatch 
a line on both sides of the intended ditch, and ritt 
with the spade alongst the same, slanting inward ; 
for if the ditch be seven quarters wide, it must be 
five deep, sloping to a foot in breadth at the bottom ; 
then cut the turf or surface of your ditch, and lay 
a gang or row of the first spading along by the brink 

110 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

of the ditch, sloping at the face according to the slop 
determined, with half a foot of table intercepting, 
because so much will crumble down by the frosts, 
&c. On the top of that lay one row of quicks, their 
tops standing up a little towards the ditch ; cover 
their roots with fine small earth, and lay another 
spading above them, and, if you will, lay another 
row of quicks above that, every one opposing the 
mid-intervall of the other, and so cover on the rest 
of the mould till the ditch be finished, being always 
sure to put good earth next the quicks, tho' you 
should bring it from the highway or a ridge of land 
next thereunto ; and every year scour the ditches, 
clapping it up about the quicks. Or a farr better 
way is, 

To cast half of the earth that comes out of the 
ditches to each hand, and quicks on both sides ; ac- 
cordingly this will make an invincible fence ; for 
then the hedge grows up on both sides, and the gut- 
ter betwixtmakesit terrible. But that I am against 
the common double (which is two ditches near one 
another, and the earth which comes out of both laid 
betwixt them with a row of quicks in the face of 
each ditch) is, because here the quicks are obnoxi- 
ous to the croping of cattle; besides they take much 

111 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

ground, and the quicks are too much burdened with 
earth. Rather, if you be for such, make a little space 
betwixt of plain ground, where you may plant the 
hedge. 

But if you would have arow of trees planted round 
by your ditches, then make these two ditches the 
breadth of a walk asunder, but parallel, and in that 
mid-interval plant one single row of trees, and the 
two hedges at the back of the ditches. Here you shall 
have two excellent walks of shade ; nor is the ground 
lost between these hedges ; you may have good hay, 
and in a large quantity. And in effect, this is the 
best way that ever I thought upon for inclosing and 
sheltering our grounds and plantations : and you 
may also make the interval betwixt these hedges 
wider, so as you may have two rowes of trees. 

Now for fencing the quicks, in all their several 
sorts, from the croping of beasts, as indispensably 
necessary while young. 

If the hedge be planted all along the bank or in- 
side of the ditch, then the strong ditch with its 
earth casten to both sides will fence it ; and if you 
think that not sufficient, set, stake and raise a hedge 
on the top of the bank, or rather (which is indeed 
much better) cuttings of thorns set thereinaspade- 

112 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

bit trench, well backed. Or for want of these, back 
up the ditch with turf, which is like half ditching. 
But all this time there is but one side of them fenced, 
and that next the pasture ; therefore no beast can 
come on the other side to eat the f orrage, except 
tethered horses. But if you make the hedge or hed- 
ges and trees betwixt the two ditches, you may cast 
half of their earth to each hand, and back them as 
is said, which fences from all hands most elegantly. 
And if you plant your hedges in the face of the 
ditches, the same backing on each hand will also 
fence them. 

But where you plant trees at a great distance 
through your fields or parks, you may fence every 
particular tree by cutting a little trench round, 
four foot from the tree, and about two foot wide, 
facing it handsomely up like a ditch, laying one 
row of turfs or spadings above another, till it be 
three foot high from the surface, backing them 
with the small earth or shovellings, battering in- 
ward to the tree. Here the tree must be high plant- 
ed ; tho' the more the soyl inclines to wet, or the 
sour it be, plant so much the higher above the sur- 
face : you may stick some briers or thorns on the 
top of this tump. 

113 8 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

CHAPTER V 

HOW TO PROPAGATE AND ORDER FRUIT-TREES 

THE only fruits for this countrey are aples, pears, 
cherries, plumes, (and apricocks, and peaches at 
south- walls) currans, goosberries, raspberries, &c. 
Before I begin, I shall premise observations on 
grafting, &c. a sure means to obtain fruits of the de- 
sired species, and that in short time ; for by taking 
the twig or bud of such a sort as is a good fruit, and 
bears well, and graff or inoculate into a proper 
stock, you are sure to have the same fruit, because 
the graff domineers, albeit it may have a little smack 
of its stock whereon it is now graffed. And you 
may expect fruit, because it may have actually the 
fruit-buds, as being taken from a bearing tree. But 
if you sow the seed, they will be long ere they come 
to bear, and at length perhaps have no fine fruit ; 
and for the seed of graffed trees, they will not bring 
the same fruit. Pears and aples will rather bring 
a fruit of the nature of the stock whereupon they 
have been graffed ; and although you should take 
a cyon of the same, and graff in it self, that will not 
alter the fruit, nor better the tree, except to check 
a little its aspiring, which may as well be effected 
by pruning. 

114 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

We can also be sure of the desired fruit by cut- 
tings, layings, and circumposition, but from such 
are alwayes dwarfish and short-liv'd trees, as want- 
ing a main-root, which all seedlings have. Hence 
ariseth one reason, why stocks should be raised 
from the seed : suckers are not so clean and lustie, 
therefore not so able to nurse the graffs, and they 
are apt to send suckers again. Only I look upon 
plum-suckers as very good, because when they 
spring off a root at a distance from the stem, they 
strike a good root of themselves, very much resem- 
bling seedlings. Moreover you may graff on a root, 
or a stock sprung off that root, which is near equal 
to a seedling. 

The seeds of crabs, or wild aples and pears, may 
be fit to make stocks of for such trees as are de- 
signed for the fields, or more rugged grounds ; but 
for a cultivated soil I would choice the seeds of finer 
fruits : and so the great white-plum is the best stock 
for apricocks,or for want thereof, any other white- 
plum with great shoots, albeit it doth on any plum ; 
but we reject itself fora stock, as being too spongie, 
and not so durable. But peaches and nectarines 
take only best upon peach-stocks ; so cherries on 
geens, and plumes upon plumes. 

115 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

Goosberries and currans need not grafting ; they 
do well by suckers, layers, and cuttings. 

To make dwarf e-aples, graff or bud on the para- 
dise, or any that hath burry-knots, codlings, red- 
stracks, &c. Dwarf e-pears on the quince ; but no 
pear holds well on it (that I have tried) save red- 
pear, achan, and longavil ; but you may re-graff 
for varieties. And if you be very curious for these 
stocks (which I am not) you may cut them at the 
spring, when ready for grafting, within two inches 
of the ground; and at August come twelve moneths, 
inoculate in that young shoot, and perhaps they 
will prosper the better. But I think grafting in the 
roots of pears will produce dwarfs. 

Dwarf -cherries may be grafted on morella, or on 
the common red cherrie,or on that red geen spoken 
of in Chap. III. which is more dwarfish than the 
black. 

The mellow, warmeand light ground is for fruits; 
and although the best, warmest and lightest land 
yields most excellent corn, yet the strong, stiff, cold 
or moist, yields not so goodfruits, plants, grass, hay, 
&c. Aples affect a pretty rich loamy soil, tho' they 
will bear in a clay, mixt with lyme, manure and 
turff. 

116 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

Pears will prosper well enough, where the soil 
is mixt with gravel ; but both aples and pears are 
better relished in warme grounds that are not over 
moist, than in cold and wet. Yet there are some 
grounds that have sweet moisture, others sour, 
which last is very bad, and therefore must be helped 
by draining, and application of proper medicines. 

Cherries, plums, apricocks, peaches, affect a light 
sharp soil, thoroughly prepared and mixed with 
rotted manures. As to their propagation : 

By grafting are raised aples, pears, cherries, 
plumes, quince, medlar, walnut, chesnut, filbeard, 
service, &c. 

Byinoculation or budding are apricocks, peaches, 
nectarines, almonds, goosberries, currans, aples, 
pears, plumes, walnuts, &c. 

By suckers, are currans, goosberries, barberries, 
rasberries, quince, vine, fig, mulberrie ; it is the 
white mulberrie that feeds the silk-worme; but 
that's to little purpose here. 

By layers and circumposition are all sorts raised. 

By cuttings, are currans, goosberries, vine, quince, 
aples, especially these with burrie-knots. 

By nuts and stones, are walnuts, chesnuts, fil- 
beards, almonds, peach, plum, cherrie. 

117 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

By kirnells or seeds, are aples, pears, quinces, 
goosberries, currans, barberries, vines, mulberries, 
&c. 

I have told whereupon to graff aples, pears, cher- 
ries, plumes, apricocks, peaches; and as for the 
quince, you may graff it on it self, or on hawthorn ; 
almond on itself ; medlars on pears or on the ser- 
vice; filbeards on the hassell; service, walnuts, 
chesnut, goosberrie, curran, all on their own 
kind. 

In raising the stocks always observe that 
Aple and pear-seed must be separated from the 
fleshy substance, and spread to dry a little, especi- 
ally the cyder-marie, lest it heat; you may roll it 
in sand to help the separation : keep it in a couch 
of dry sand till winter pass, then sow it as soon as 
the frosts are over ; it comes up that season. 

Peach, plum and almond-stones must be used in 
all cases as cherries ; only you may break the peach- 
stones. Use the quince-seed as aples. As for the 
rest, Ihaveshewedhowthey are increased, andhow 
to performe the several wayes. 

But you must prepare a seminary and nurserie, 
as before for forest-trees. Sow every species by 
themselves, keep them clean of weeds; and the next, 

118 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

or second year after the seeds rise, if they shoot 
lustily (draw out the biggest first) transplant them 
into the nurserie in single rowes, at two foot inter- 
val, and half a foot in the rowes, for conveniency 
in hawing, graffing, pruning, &c. and observe to 
prune the root and side-branches in planting, as I 
directed with f orrest-trees. Only, when you have 
got them to a convenient height for graffing, you 
may cut their tops, to make their bodies swell the 
sooner ; albeit this be not permitted with f orrest- 
trees. However,graff and inoculate while the stocks 
are young, ere they bean inch in diameter, and they 
will sooner heal the wound. Let them have a year's 
settlement in the nurserie before you graff ; but you 
may inoculate that same ensuing summer after 
planting, especially if they be very free and lustie. 
Next year after graffing remove them to a wider 
distance, viz. three foot one way, and a foot the 
other; prune their roots at every removal, that they 
may provide for a well-shapen head ; cut them near 
now while young, if you would have all their 
branches of an equal greatness, and of order proper, 
as anon I shall inform you. 

In setting your stocks in the nurserie, I presume 
you will set every kind by themselves, i.e. pears with 

119 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

pears, aples with aples, &c. And when you graff or 
bud, write down in your nurserie-book their species 
as they stand, viz. begin at the end of such a nur- 
serie, and say : the first row is graff ed with such 
a sort, and so f urth ; and, if you have more than one 
in a row, then set in a stake betwixt each species, 
and so write thus : from such an end of such a row, 
to the first stake are so many of such a sort or species ; 
thence to the second stake, and so many to another, 
&c. 

When you transplant fruit-trees into orchards, 
do as I directed with f orrest-trees in groves ; plant 
not deep, neither trench too deep ; but tempt the 
roots by baiting the surface with manures, to make 
them run ebb within the reach of the sun and 
showres. Therefore mix the earth in the holes, 
which should be six or eight foot diameter, with 
rotted neats manure, and earth well turned, sweet- 
ened, and prepared. Prune their roots at every re- 
moval, as in f orrest-trees. Experience forbids me 
to make exception of the peach, or any other, as 
some do. Always proportion their heads to their 
roots by pruning. But here note, that, as f orrest- 
trees are train'd up with high bodies, and unlopt 
heads, so fruit-trees with low bodies, their heads 

120 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

lopt, and branches topt, and therefore are easily 
proportion'd, as aforesaid. 

Standards four years old, may be planted out of 
nurseries into orchards, and also wall-trees two 
years old. 

The season of the year is as soon as they give over 
growing ; if the leaves be not off, cut them, saving 
a little tail of their stalks. It's true you may plant 
any time in winter, the weather being open ; but 
rather let the frosts be over, and the spring ap- 
proaching, if you have missed the fore-end of win- 
ter, which is the better season. 

For standards, are aples, pears, cherries, plumes, 
goosberries, currans, barberries, quince, walnut, 
chesnut, filberd, service : but I think all these de- 
serve not a place in the orchard. 

For walls are apricocks, peaches, nectarines, al- 
monds, vines, figs, currans, aples, pears, cherries, 
plumes, &c. But you need not take up much with 
almond, vine, fig nor nectarine. 

On the south-side of the wall, plant apricocks, 
peaches, nectarines, vine, &c. On the east and west- 
sides, cherries, plumes, aples, pears, &c. On the 
north-side, plumes, some pears as great bergamot, 
some aples, currans especially, and rasps, &c. 

121 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

When you elect them in the nurserie, hang sticks 
tied at them figured, and write the same figure on 
the paper at their name, to distinguish their species; 
and afterwards, being planted, write them as they 
stand. 

Begin betimes to prune your fruit-trees ; spare 
them not while young ; reduce them into a good 
shape and order while such, so they will not only 
soon overgrow the wounds, their branches being but 
small, but also, when they should come to bear fruit, 
you shall not need to cut so much ; only purge them 
of superfluities; and this is the way to make trees 
fruitful as well as pleasant. 

Some ignorants are against pruning, suffering 
their trees to run and ramble to such a head of con- 
fusion, as neither bear well nor fair ; for the root 
is not able to maintain such; farr less fruit too, and 
therefore is their fruit so small and imperfect. In 
the meantime the tree spends its strength, and so 
cannot live long, nor make good service in its time; 
yea, sometimes the root is not so much as able to 
bear such monstrous heads. I knew one windy day 
prostrate above half a score such in a little orchard. 

Others again that are for pruning, usually run on 
the other extream, by cutting too much and un- 

122 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

timely; and some sparing what they should cut, and 
cutting such as they ought to spare : but the general 
errour, even among the learned, is, that they spare 
them when they should prune, viz. the very first, 
and second year especially; yea, the first five or six 
years, and then they fall a-massackering, at which 
time the branches being growen, some of them 
greater than others, now run away with all the 
nourishment from the smaller, insomuch that no 
man can reduce them into order again, having thus 
neglected the time ; albeit you should endeavour 
it by cutting deep, or exterminating these great 
branches, which, I confess, is the next remeed; but 
then as these wounds bring cankers, hollowness, 
&c. so doth the work retard their bearing fruit. 
And indeed it's about the time that trees ordinarily 
begin to bear fruit that these unskilful men begin 
to prune ; and the more they are thus cut in the 
head, the more they spring out to wood, and the 
less they bear fruit. But experience has taught me 
to begin while young. 

And when you do begin, consider on the hight of 
the body ; for, as high trees are unprofitable, so too 
low trees in orchards are inconvenient; for aple 
and pear standards, two or three foot ; plum and 

123 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

cherrie, three or four foot ; dwarf and wall-trees, 
half a foot ; then cut the top that runs straight up- 
wards, making it to spread out in branches round. 
Suffer no branch to aspire beyond others in hight, 
nor any to cross, rub, or gall one another ; and what- 
ever branch or twig you cut off, cut close and clean 
by the body or branch, except in the case of old 
trees and great branches, as I observed in pruning 
forest-trees ; and in topping of branches, cut close 
and smooth immediately above a leaf -bud, slanting 
downwards to cover the wound. And when you 
prune, spare the fruit-buds, (the full ones I mean) 
except you see them too many, then purge by the 
knife. Like wayes, if afterwards you find more fruit 
knotted than the tree can be able to nurse to per- 
fection, thin them in time. 

But your first work is to proportion the head to 
the root by pruning ; cut the tops at a convenient 
hight, that the tree may grow equally furnished 
round ; for cutting, as it diminisheth, so it forms 
and shapes the head, insomuch asitfurnisheth with 
ne w young shoots, that may be train'd as you please, 

Standards should have but four arms breaking 
out for a head, opening equally round ; thesedivided 
into branches, and again subdividing the twigs. 

124 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

And, that you may the better understand what to 
cut, you may stand under, go about, and look up 
through the tree where you may espy superfluities ; 
keep them clear, void, open within like a bell, and 
level on the top ; make some larger opens towards 
the south, for the sun-beams' entrance. Let no 
branch grow cross through the heart, nor shoot 
spring up therein ; minding to prune such as cross, 
rub, and gall one another, as is before noted ; and 
any branches, shoots, or twigs, that grow not the 
way you would have them, cut them at the place 
whence you think they will sendf urth shoots, which 
may lead them the way you desire them ; cut close, 
smooth, and slanting, at the back of a leaf -bud tend- 
ing that way. By this I bring trees to order. 

Wall-trees especially should be cut near while 
young, that they may send forth small shoots, for 
furnishing your walls from the bottom equally; 
andif you continue to top them every year at a con- 
venient hight (perhaps about half a foot above the 
last) that will make them shoot all their branches 
of an equal uniformity of greatness, hight and 
thickness, so that no long, bair, or naked branch 
may be seen there, neither one or two great, and 
all the rest starved and small, which is the common 

125 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

fault of our wall-trees and is occasioned through 
neglecting to cut while young, even the first year, 
as is said above. 

But albeit a tree right begun, and so going on, 
yet one year's neglect, or wrong pruning, may spoil 
it. For as I was once pruning wall-trees, an ingeni- 
ous person standing by, said, I cut them too low, 
aledging thereby, the wall should be long uncov- 
ered, desiring me to cut them a little higher. I told 
him that was wrong ; but for to satisfie him, I cut 
two of them about eight or nine inches higher than 
I designed, or should have done. The next year 
these two trees left about a foot naked round, and 
above the same crown'd like nests, while the rest 
were equally and orderly furnished. When he be- 
held this, his minde was changed, and I was obliged 
to cut exactly where I should have done the prece- 
dent year, which was now a little below the middle 
of the naked place, and this put them several years 
behind the rest of bearing fruit. 

You may nail them at Michaelmas that year of 
planting, and continue so to do at the seasons here- 
after described. Prepare double plancher-nails, and 
tags of hats (which is better than leather) ; shape 
the tags about half an inch broad, and betwixt three, 

126 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

four, and five inches long, making a gash with the 
knife near the ends by folding, to put through the 
nail ; then spread the tree, laying, plying and nail- 
ing on every individual branch by it self, all at equal 
distances from one another, not close in one place, 
and wide in another ; and let none cross the other ; 
the superfluous, and these that will not ply easily, 
and the exuberant or lustie that robs the rest must 
be cut away. 

Well plyed trees will appear like peacocks train 
spread ; drive the nail but half way in, and on the 
upper side of the branch, else it will lean and gall ; 
at every nailing alter the old nails, and beware of 
pinching the young branches by making the tags 
or binding too tight. 

The time for pruning old planted and hardie trees, 
is any time betwixt the fall of the leaf and the spring ; 
but let the frosts be over before you prune those 
that are new-planted, young and tender, and before 
the sap rise ; otherwayes the frosts will penetrate 
the wounds, and make a sore. But if you must cut 
before the frosts, because their heads may be ob- 
noxious to the winds, such as are ordinarily the new- 
planted standards, then you may cut a little at 
spring, and at spring cut off cleanly the pieces left, 

127 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

as is before noted. Also let the frosts be over before 
you prune your wall- trees and before they bud; 
only I use to let peaches budfurth a little ere I prune 
them, otherwayes pieces of their branches some- 
times perish after the knife. 

And besides, you must rub off all unnecessary 
buds, and pull up sucker sand weeds from the roots : 
you must also give all your trees a mid-summer 
pruning, which is ordinarily the end of June, and 
beginning of July, a good time to cut any shoots of 
this year. 

Any shoots or buds as tend not only to the de- 
forming of your trees, but to rob them of that sap, 
which may be otherwayes spent in nursing the tree 
and its fruits, but the spring is the time of cropping 
or cutting their tops, until the wall be covered; 
then crop at both seasons. Thin and purge these 
gently, to let in the sun, but not to scorch your fruit. 
This is also the time of furnishing your trees with 
pedalstoolsor bearers. Therefore in re-pruning, save 
as many of the likelyest shoots as are well placed,and 
cut them at the third or fourth bud from the tree ; 
but cut quite off the lustiest and greatest of this 
year's growth (which ignorants do spare) and nail 
up such as are for filling up the defects of the wall. 

128 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

You may go through them in harvest, and purge 
the fruit of superfluous leaves, which hinders the 
sun; but do it so, as there may be leaves sufficient 
to screen the fruit, and cut quite off the lustie shoots 
of this second spring, which rob the tree and fruit. 

As for goosberrie and curran-standards, train 
them to a foot stem, with a handsome round, but 
thin head ; these at walls, half a foot stem, with a 
well-spread head, supported with rods laid across, 
fastened with nails and tags. Rasps may grow in 
shadowy bordures or beds, a foot distance, kept 
clean of suckers, weeds and dead wood. 

But because some years, in some places, we have 
ripe grapes, especially what goes under the name 
of f r ontinak ; therefore if you think a tree or two of 
them worth your while, plant them at a south-wall, 
in a pure and fine mould, not wet, sour and croud, 
but a light sweet soil, mixt with some cow's man- 
ure, rotted in heaps with the mould. Plant ebb, and 
trench not deep ; prune them every year, low in 
February, and at the true mid-summer. Cut off the 
lustie young shoots and tendralls with sheers be- 
twixt the second and third joynt above the fruit, 
and in August purge it of superfluous leaves, but 
reserve so many as may screen the fruit a little. 

129 9 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

There are some sorts of fruit-trees that will blow 
and bear themselves to death, when young or middle 
aged; from such, cut most of the blowing buds, and 
thin the head to make it shoot again. 

I got some cherries, and other stone-fruit from 
Holland, which tooke this decay; wherefore in the 
spring, I cut off the blowing buds and the branches, 
near the place where the tree headed, reserving only 
some buds for receiving the sap, in case they should 
have put f urth at the middle of the body, or a little 
above ground ; this made them shoot new wood. 
Therefore I conclude, that by this, and delving a- 
bout, you may keep ill-thriving trees. 

There are also some aples and pears, that will be 
full of false-bearing buds, that do not blow : such 
have got more head than the roots can well main- 
tain, and consequently have not strength sufficient 
to spare sap for blossoms, f arr less for fruit, which 
by pruning and thinning the head, and by slitting 
the bark of the body in spring, may be made after- 
wards to bear well, when they have put f urth new 
shoots at the head. 

Some trees there be that will not bear of them- 
selves till they be old ; but if you cut off the head 
of the shoots, as soon as ever the spring-shoot is 

130 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

over, (which is at true mid-summer), and take out 
some great boughs then, if you minde your time, 
and do it with discretion, you may force that tree 
to put furth blowing buds, and blow and bear the 
year following, as I shall informe you in the next 
sections. But, 

One main business is to inclose your plantations ; 
avoid planting too deep, too dry, too cold, or too 
moist, and guard your orchards from winds, by 
planting two rowes of f orrest-trees at least round 
without the wall, the breadth of a large walk, or 
rather fifty feet therefrom, with thickets of the same 
on the west, north and east, but especially on the 
west (yet mind regularity). Also observe my me- 
thode of planting and pruning, and ordering their 
bulks of six and eight foot diameter. But when the 
trees grow old, and their feeding roots f arr abroad, 
you cannot reach to feed them with manures in this 
narrow compass; therefore enlarge it, or other- 
wayes confine them a little sooner, and hinder their 
too f arr gauding, by digging a circle round the tree, 
perhaps eight foot diameter, and cut all the roots 
clean off there that hath not run out, applying fresh 
and sweet mould, so shall they emit fibres or feed- 
ing roots in thicket, which may be supplied with 

131 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

refreshments once in two or three years, as shall 
be required. And this cutting the roots will cause 
trees that are apt to spend more in wood than fruit, 
alter therefrom, and the ends of the roots cut off, 
and their butt-ends raised up a little, will serve as 
stocks to graff upon. 

When you would enrich your worne out planta- 
tions, if the ground be poor and dry, add well rotted 
manure prepared and mixt with soil: the water that 
soaks from a dung-hill is excellent, for it will follow 
the roots, and enrich the trees. If the ground be 
cold and moist, add pidgeon's manure, or ashes and 
soot, which is also excellent, if it be rank with un- 
skilful manuring, or by noysome weeds that grow 
about such roots (where the owner is a sluggard), 
and hatches or nestles, moles, mice, toads, &c. 

If you observe the premises, you may prevent 
their diseases, such as ill-thriving, &c. but if you 
have, or do neglect, and the diseases are be come, 
as if cankers or galls be entered, cut them clean out, 
covering the wound with a plaister of cow's man- 
ure and clay compounded. If the bark be pilled by 
hares, conies, or mice, apply a plaister of the same ; 
(but better prevent the last three, by swaddling the 
trees with straw or hay-ropes, unloosed in summer, 

132 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

and renewed every winter, if your fence cannot 
guard them). Ill-taken-off branches, and branches 
broken or rotten, must be cut off clean and smooth. 
If any trees be bark-bound, which is the misery of 
many, and especially f orrest-trees, slit them in the 
spring through the bark on both sides, with a sharp 
knife, from the head to the root, and delve about 
them ; otherwayes raise and plant them ebber, if 
too deep, which is the common cause of this disease, 
together with bad inclosures. 

If jaundice affects them, cut off the diseased wood ; 
if moss, scrape or singe it off ; but it's in vain to at- 
tempt the cure, until you first remove the cause, 
which you will find to proceed from some malig- 
nity at the roots, whether the disease be bark-bind- 
ing, cankers, &c. 

And this most commonly happens by ill-planting, 
and not inclosing, as amongst clay, water, impene- 
trable gravel, &c. Water must be drained, it is 
an intolerable evil : cold clayes, or stiff and hard 
soil must be trenched and mixed with manures and 
soils often stirred and fallowed, as above is directed. 
An d if you would have trees to prosper, observe their 
nature, and wherein they most delight, and so apply 
and keep them accordingly. 

133 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

As for destroying of vermin, there are traps for 
moles of several forms: besides, you may watch 
and delve them up with the spade. And for mice, 
you may have traps from Holland, or for want there- 
of, pots maybe sunk in the earth (where they haunt) 
till their mouths be level with the surface, half full 
of water, covered with a little chaff, wherein they 
drown themselves; and so do toads, asps, &c. Cast 
away the earth where the ants lodge, supplying its 
place with stiff clay: place cow-hoofs for the wood- 
lice and ear- wigs to lodge in all night, and so scald 
them early morning. Pour scalding water in the 
nests of wasps, and hang glasses of ail mingled 
with honey, where you would not have them fre- 
quent. 

Dash water on the trees for caterpillars, by the 
stroups which we get from Holland. Gather snails 
and wormes; shoot crows, pyes, jayes, and spread 
nets before your wall-fruit for preservation. 

See Part III. how to gather and preserve fruit, 
and how to make cyder, &c. 

CHAPTER VI 

OF FRUITS, HEAKBS, AND BOOTS FOB THE KITCHEN 

ALL fruits whereof I spoke in the last chapter, are 

134 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

for the kitchen or table, but they grow on trees or 
shrubs ; yet there are some which fall in here, the 
tenderest whereof are, 

Melons, and are not worth the while ; for you 
must raise them on the early hot-bed. 

Strawberries are a very fine and delicate fruit, 
and are easily increased, but best by the small plants 
taken from their mother plants at the strings in 
August, by which means they will be sufficiently 
rooted, so as not to be spued out of the ground by 
the frosts in winter. Manure, delve, mix and pre- 
pare a light and warme soil ; prune their roots and 
tops, and plant them in streight lines, five rowes in 
a bed of four feet broad, and suffer them never to 
over-run, but keep each stock by themselves, still 
taking off all their strings (except at some time 
you permit a few for increase). Weed and haw a- 
mongthem ; and in September cut them within two 
inches of the ground, and lay cow-manure over the 
bed, if in a sandy soil, reserving their tops free, cov- 
ered with a sprinkling of sand : this will much im- 
prove them, so as they will not need renewing for 
six or seven years. 

Artichocks are a fine and lasting fruit, and are 
increased by off -sets chiefly planted in the spring, 

135 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

in a fat and well cultured soil, light and warme, en- 
riched with sheeps manure ; plant in straight lines, 
about three foot distance, having prun'd their root, 
and cut their tops within half a foot ; water (if need- 
ful) with qualified water, and still cut away their 
under and hanging leaves, and haw the weeds as 
they begin to peep. When their fruit is spent, cut 
them within half a foot of the ground, and delve 
and cover the plot over with manure and leitter, 
keeping their tops free : in Aprile delve down the 
same, and extirpate them of suckers, slipping them 
off carefully, leaving two or three at most to each 
stock for bearing, and they will flourish nine or ten 
years. 

Great beans must be planted early in the spring, 
as soon as the great frosts are over, in a deep rich 
ground, at two foot inter vail, and half a foot in their 
rowes ; these for seed when full ripe, cut and bind 
in little sheaves, and lay on trees to dry. 

Kidnes in Aprile in a light and warme soil ; sup- 
port them with sticks. 

Peas that you would have early, sow in the full 
moon of November, if in a warme place ; but do not 
trust too much unto them. Sow in February, and 
hence monthly till June, in an open, light, warme, 

136 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

dry soil, that you may have them till the frosts sur- 
prize them ; and if they lie on the bair ground, they 
will sooner ripen by reflection. But if you would 
have them fruitful, set sticks amongst them while 
young for their tenderals to climb on, and keep 
them alwayes clean of weeds. When ripe, you may 
easily win some for seed ; but sow not every year 
on the same plot ; to change the ground improves 
them. I prefer setting them by lines, five rowes in 
the bed ; make the holes nimbly by the lines, with 
a dibble an inch and a half deep, and two inches dis- 
tance from another, or on the same hand fallowing, 
and put one in each hole : then give the bed a smooth 
with the rake-head, which fills the holes, and covers 
the peas : one pound makes more service thus than 
three otherwayes ; it's soon performed, and they 
spring orderly. 

Of sallads and pot-herbes : the choisest sallad is 
asparagus ; sow its seeds in March in good ground, 
and transplant that time te welv moneths into an ex- 
ceeding rich and well mixed soil of rotted manure 
and light earth ; taking care that this manure be 
six or eight inches below the roots of the asparagus. 
You may streatch lines along and cross the beds, 
and mark with the edge of the rule ; then gather 

137 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

little huts of earth at the crossings, whereon you 
must spread the roots of your asparagus, two on a 
hut ; but do not top their roots. You may perceive 
their poynts are like the runners of liquorish; then 
cover the sets with the rotted manure and earth, 
two inches over, which hasbeenlying ayearin com- 
post. They cannot abide wet grounds, and weeds 
will quy t destroy them. At the approach of winter 
cut their stalks, and cover their beds with leitter 
and manure from the stables. The winter r aines will 
wash in its substance to their roots. At spring ere 
they peep, remove it, and loosen the earth amongst 
them with a fork, and cover them near half an inch 
with the mould raked and leveled, but do not tread 
on them. Follow this direction yearly, and in four 
or five years it will be excellent for cutting. Cut 
the biggest and tender est, a little within the ground ; 
but hurt not those ready to peep. The seed is ripe 
when red. 

You may have early asparagus, if you plant some 
strong roots on your early hot-bed, which about a 
moneth hence will spring, and then dy. 

Purslain may be sowen on the early hot-bed ; it 
cannot endure deep interring ; sow it on a fine mould 
like dust, and only clap it a little with the shovell; 

138 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

thence on the cold bed, but in fat and fine soil, 
through the summer in drills, for convenience of 
weeding and cutting ; and if you please, transplant 
it when two inches long. Reserve the early sowen 
for seed, till their pods grow blackish, then pull and 
hang them to dry, and rub out. 

As you sow purslain, so lettice by seeds only, at 
the same seasons ; but the winter or corn-sallad in 
August. They love a fat soil something moist, that 
for winter, more dry. Suffer these for seed to run 
up, and only cleanse off the under and withered 
leaves. It's ripe when it begins to fly with the wind ; 
pull it, and lay it on a clothe to perfect, then rub 
out on a dry day. 

Sow cresses at the same season, and plant. 

Tarragon by off-sets in the spring. 

The small cherault (chervil) by seeds, as cresses, 
as also 

Burnet ; but it continues many years, still yield- 
ing seed. 

Sampier growes at the sea-side in Gallaway, but 
not so well in our gardens. 

Succory and endive must be sowen by seeds in 
June and July and offsets at both springs ; when 
they have five leaves, transplant them into a rich 
139 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

bordure, watering them well until they root; so soon 
as they turn bushy or thick of leaves in the middle, 
tye them up regularly with matt-strings in dry 
weather, watering them well ; and in three weeks 
they will be fit for use, by showing you their white 
leaves in the middle, twisting out below the tyings. 
Lift them up, taking off the green leaves and inner 
white leaves, they make a fine sallad. They continue 
many years. 

Sorrall by off -sets, some also by seed, in the be- 
ginning of Aprile, in a good fat soil, a little shade, 
six or seven rowes in a bed, weeded all summer, and 
cut near the ground in September. In two or three 
years replant it in another place, for it soon impairs 
the ground of the place appropriate for it. 

Spinage by seed only in February and March, but 
that sowen in the beginning of August is the most 
profitable ; cut it in the beginning of October, and 
it will spring afresh, and be ready for spring-stoves; 
then reserve some uncut for seed : it prospers well 
in a very fat earth, not too dry. 

And so do beets, which are also propagated the 
same way ; only those sowen at spring are most 
serviceable. 

Sowbeet-card in the fattest land, and when some- 
140 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

thing strong you may transplant : they seed the 
next, not that year wherein you sow them. 

Order burrage as spinage; it's also an annual: so 
bugloss ; but it continues many years. 

Marigold may be ordered as burrage, and white 
arage (orach) as spinage. 

Parsley by seeds in February and March; they 
bring forth their seeds next year, whereby they 
must be yearly renewed. 

Sellery in a light fat soil, eight rowes in a bed, as 
parsley; it continues long, yielding seed yearly after 
the first; and so doth smallage and alexander : they 
may be blanched as succery and endive. Sellery 
sowen in March, you may transplante at mid-sum- 
mer in a very fat fine earth, half foot deep furrowes, 
three foot between the rowes, and four inches in 
the rows; and as it growes up, gather the earth at 
its sides from the intervals, leaving the top free ; 
and still as it growes, earth it up in dry weather, so 
shall it be blanched for a winter sallad. 

Gar leeks and shallot by off-sets in March, in a light 
and fat soil, eight rowes in a bed: I use neither cut- 
ting nor twisting their stalks ; but when their fibres 
begin to rot in the latter end of August, take them 
up, and spread to dry a little, and house them in a 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

dry room with board-floor for use, and replant in 
September. 

Leeks by seed in April, in a fat soil, though some- 
thing stiff; in June you may thin them by trans- 
plantation ; prune their roots and tops, set them at 
three inches distance, and continue to crop them 
till October. The French seed is best, ours not worth 
the while. 

Onyons by seeds in March, in a rich, warme light 
mould, well mixt with rotted compost and sifted 
pigeons' manure; give them a thin coat or covering 
of earth ; sow also in the beginning of July for shi- 
bols; it's not worth the pains to win their seed. 

Plant off-sets of sives in spring, nine rowes in a 
bed, in a rich low ground. 

Cole-flower is a line cole ; sow it on the early hot- 
bed, (for it's hard to get winter plants through to 
purpose) ; sow thin and ebb, and carefully preserve 
themf rom colds when young. If you water, imbibe 
pigeons manure, but touch not the leaves ther e wi th. 
When their leaves are three inches broad, trans- 
plant them into a very fat and well mixt soil, at two 
foot distance; prune their roots and tops, and if any 
worm knots, cut them away ; and in setting keep 
their hearts immediately above ground. All along 

142 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

keep them clean of weeds, under-hanging and with- 
ered leaves, let them not suffer drought while young 
and keep snails from them. If the ground and seed 
be good, you may expect good heads, which if you 
spend not altogether before frost (which spoils 
them), take them up in a dry day, and ty them in 
pairs to hang in a dry room for use. The best seed 
comes from Candia. 

There be many cabbages ; sow the savoy, and such 
tender sorts,as cole-flowers, albeit not so tender; sow 
the great, white and red, in the full moon in July; 
plant them f urth in October at three foot distance, 
in well-manured ground. Set some also in March : 
but then the gar d'ner finds multiplicity of business ; 
therefore it's his wisdom to put as much work by 
hand as can suffer it, at least to have all his grounds 
fallowed before winter. You may hang up your 
cabbages in November, as cole-flowers; but plant 
some of the best and hardest for seed, up to the neck. 
When they shoot, support with stakes and ropes; 
when full, cut and lay on a clothe to perfect : but 
choice the upright stem in the heart and its branches, 
rejecting the lower branches. 

Catch snails and worms that gnaw the young 
sprouting plants, and set nets for birds at the same 

143 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

time. The reason why old cole is full of green worms, 
is dry poor ground never weeded ; or otherwayes 
unqualified manures, and unseasonably applyed. 
If they will, trench, mix, &c. as in Chap. II. that their 
ground may be clean and sweet, they shall ripen 
accordingly. 

Common colworts are usually sowen at spring, 
planted in summer, and eaten through winter, and 
at spring, when other green herbes are scarce ; you 
may also so wand set them with cabbages, and reap 
their seeds accordingly. 

Of sweet herbes : as, 

Clary ; raise it by seeds and off-sets in Aprile, at 
which time, you may slip and set tansie, sage, cost, 
mint, balme, winter-savory, thyme, penniroyall, 
wild marjoram, maudlin, fennel, &c. Prune their 
fibres, and plant in a garden soil, eight rowes in the 
bed : they all continue long, but cutting their tops 
in growing time, makes them more durable ; and 
cut them all within a handful of the ground in 
August, that they may recover against winter. You 
may likewayes sow the seed of fennel, thyme, 
winter as well as summer-savory, dill, sweet basil, 
&c. in Aprile, in a warme well cultured soil, order- 
ing them as above ; the three last are annualls. If 

144 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

you would have sweet marjoram early, raise it on 
the hot-bed: the sweet basil requires the same. Sow 
it also the latter end of Aprile in a warme fat soil, 
eight rowes in a bed : you may sow it in July, and 
transplant when two inches high in a warme bor- 
dure at a south wall ; its seed, with that of basill 
comes from the hotter countries. Sow rosmary 
seed in Aprile or at the same time take its slips or 
cuttings, and twist them a little at the ends, and 
dibble in good soil, on a south- wall bordure ; but 
cut not their tops: they easily root, being watered 
in drought with soap-water. You may ply it to the 
wall as shrubs. 

I am now come to roots. They require a light 
earth, deep trenched, fat sand mixt with sheeps' 
manure : it's convenient that it be manured a year 
before, because new manure makes them f orke. 

Plant liquorish off-sets and runners in February 
in this soil, well stirred and mixt ; after which do 
not tread save in the furrows, six rowes in the bed, 
and cover all the intervals with leitter topt with 
sand, but let the plants be free ; for this is to keep 
out drought the first summer ; keep them alwayes 
clean of weeds, and cut their stalks near winter. 
Let it stand three summers in the ground, and in 

145 10 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

November take it up thus ; begin at one side of the 
plot, and make a trench the whole deepth of their 
roots, taking it out carefully (not breaking it) at 
the face of the same, casting the earth still behind 
as you proceed ; then cut off the plants, to divide 
carefully, and lay them amongst moist sand in a 
cellar till setting time. And because it stands three 
seasons, you may have three several plantations ; 
so shall you have it to take up yearly, if you plant 
it accordingly. 

Scorzonera by seed and by off -sets, that is, by part- 
ing the tops of the root ; sow in the spring, or when 
its seed ripes, promiscuously in the beds : it con- 
tinues many years in the ground, and growes still 
the greater, and is in season at all times for eating, 
tho' it run yearly to seed. 

Order carvy as scorzonera : its roots are eaten as 
parsneeps. 

Skirrets by seeds but chiefly by off-sets, not many 
in a bundle, in March eight rowes in a bed : when 
their stalks begin to wither, fall a spending them ; 
and as you break off their roots for use, lay their 
tops or sets in ground covered a little till the spring 
for planting. (I cautioned you before to change the 
crops) ; these you spend not ere the frosts come, 

146 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

house hard among very dry sand, that you may 
have them when you will, rather than be barred 
from them by frosts. These roots which come from 
the tops or sets are always so sticky, there is no eat- 
ing them ; they love a moist rich soil. 

Parsneeps by seed only, sow in March, promiscu- 
ously over the bed, but thin ; spend and house them 
with skirrets ; and cut quite off their tops, lest they 
grow amongst the sand. Reserve some of the best 
untaken up for seed, which will ripe the next season ; 
choice the middle stem seed. 

Beet-rave may be ordered in all cases, as pars- 
neeps, save that you may begin sooner to eat them, 
viz., as soon as they are bigg enough, tho' they last 
as long, besides these you pickle. If in summer they 
offer to run to stem and seed, cut down their stems 
to the ground, which will make their roots swell; 
they delight in a rich clay. 

Carrots as beet-rave. 

Turneeps by seed in Aprile, May, June and July, 
(the first proves not best) promiscuously over the 
bed, very thin, and scarcely any covering of earth : 
the earliest prove not best. When they rise, thin 
them ; late turneeps may be housed as parsneeps, 
and seeds reapt accordingly. 

147 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

Horse radish by off-sets, and lasts long too. 

The garden raddish by seed only ; for early ones 
you may raise them in the hofcbed cases, hence you 
may have every twenty days, with other sallading 
through summer, because it quickly shoots for seed. 
Sowblackradishin August and September for win- 
ter ; these seed next season. 

Potatoesbeing cutin as many pieces as you please 
provided there be an eye at each piece, must be 
planted in March, five rows in a bed ; plant not deep, 
neither in wet or stiff ground ; spend them with par s- 
neeps, and in housing spread them only through a 
broad floor. 

See Part I. Chap. IV. for the orderly planting of 
kitchen-herbs. 

Weeding (I think) may be accompted the most 
material part of gard'nery. The learned Evelyn 
takes notice of it ; his directions are, " Weed and 
haw betimes ; continue weeding before they run to 
seed, which is of extraordinary importance both 
for saving of charge, improvement of fruit, and the 
neat maintaining of the gar dens ; wherefore," sayes 
he, " keep your weeds down, that they grow not to 
seed, and begin your work of hawing as soon as they 
begin almost to peep ; by this means you will dis- 

148 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

patch more in a few houres than afterwards in a 
whole day ; whereas, if you neglect it till they are 
ready to seed, you do but stir and repair the earth 
for a more numerous crop, and your ground shall 
never be cleared." 

And this agrees with what I have written my self, 
viz. to destroy weeds while young ; for when they 
have growen strong, and got deep rooting, they'll 
not only take the nourishment from the good plant, 
but there will be such difficulty in grubbing them 
out, that the good seed or plant is in danger of being 
destroyed ; but if you suffer them to bear and sow 
their seeds, then (besides that they exhaust much 
more of the substance of the ground) you shall find 
the work intolerable, for they'll poyson the whole 
ground, insomuch that one year's seeds will cost 
many years' weeding ; and therefore prevent these 
things by keeping down the weeds ; so shall your 
work become easie, and the gardens handsome. 

In beds where hawes cannot go, you must weed 
with your hands on both sides, sitting in a furrow 
on a straw cushion ; pull up the roots cleanly, tak- 
ing the help of the weeding-ir on where needful ; but 
make use of the haw in all the intervals, drill-beds, 
nurseries, f urrowes, tables or pathes, whereby one 

149 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

will cleanse more than some six by weeding with 
their hands ; and if dry weather, they'll wither while 
they ly cut, otherwayes rake them in heaps, and 
spread again when rotted, or carry them to some 
open trench or pit ; and still be visiting your planta- 
tions, that as soon as you perceive a weed peep, you 
may chalk it. 

CHAPTER VII 

OF SOME PHYSICK-HERBES, SHRUBS, AND FLOWERS 

ALL the herbes in the last chapter are physical ; 
therefore having spoken to them already, I have the 
less to do here ; however, there are some, as 

Garden-rue; I use to en virone sage-beds with rue, 
the soil not moist, mixt with ashes, not cinders ; 
you may box bordures with it, as well as lavender 
or hysop ; which last is also increased by seed ; and 
so is golden-rod, fever-few, verven, celandin: they 
last many years, and so doth 

Wormwoods, comfry, Solomon's-seal, catmint, 
callamint, elacampan, masterwort, wall-pelli- 
tory, garden-gemander, beatony, camomile, swal- 
lowwort, suthernwood, lovag, dwarf -elder, harts- 
tongue, maiden-hair, asrum, dropwort, birth wort, 
horhund, spignell, agrimony, briony, bears-breach, 

150 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

sea-holly, madder, rhuebarb, dog -mercury, all 
which are easily increased by off -sets in the spring, 
and require to be cut a little above ground at the 
beginning of autumne. 

Angelica, spurg, scurvy-grass, &c. are annuals, but 
yield seed the second year from sowing : you may 
sow when ripe, or in the spring ; but, if you prevent 
their seeding by cutting, they will last longer. 

Blessed -thistle, thorn -aple, tobacco, stinking- 
arag, oak of Jerusalem, &c. yielding seed, and dying 
the first year ; therefore sow yearly in Aprile. The 
Virginia tobacco requires the hot-bed, the rest a 
good fat light soil, as doth angelica. You must not 
burie stinking-arag deep, sow it as purslain. 

There be many more, besides multitudes in the 
fields, woods, glens, meado wes, &c. of good use,many 
whereof you may bring into the garden, as I have 
done. But I forbear as I have given sufficient direc- 
tions for the kitchen-garden. I do not approve of 
planting the clod with these brought out of the 
fields, for it rots and turns sour, and so kills the 
plant, albeit you may keep the clod about it till you 
come home, but then part it off carefully ; prune 
their fibres a little, make the holes with the trowall, 
and plant in a co-natural earth to that of their 

151 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

wonted abode, well stirred and aired, which is an 
excellent mean to make all plants prosper, and 
therefore dilligently to be observed. 

Of shrubs that lose their leaves in winter, the 
choicest whereof are, 

Roses of many sorts ; they are increased by suckers 
and layers. The musk may be budded on the 
eglantin, and set at a wall. The double-yellow 
bears fairest flowers; you may bud the single-yellow 
onaFrankfort,and re-bud the double-yellow there- 
on (I have often done it immediately on the single), 
planted as a standard, shaded in summer, and kept 
clean of suckers and superfluous buds ; and any that 
blow not freely, may be slit at the five divisions of 
the hose. 

Prune your roses after the flower is past, viz. 
before the full moon in October ; cut behind a leaf- 
bud, and cleanse them of dead wood ; and if you 
desire fair flowers, suffer but one stem on a root, 
and keep it low, and every fifth year cut them down 
to the ground, renewing their earth with old cow- 
manure. 

Jasmines, honisuckles, pipe-trees, &c. are pro- 
pagated by suckers, layers, and cuttings. 

Mezerion by seed, as hawthorn ; they ly as long. 
152 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

Of shrubs that are ever-green, there is box, sa vine, 
arbor- vitse, tamarisk, privete,&c.,by suckers, layers, 
and cuttings, in Aprile : a shade, and moist fat soil 
are necessary for them, till rooted. 

The cherrie-bay is an excellent green, and not very 
apt to blast, there is also laurustinus, philyrea, 
alaternus (I love not pyracantha), juniper ; (I care 
not for ever-green oak and cypress). They are all 
raised by seeds, and must be couched in sand before 
winter, and sowen in Aprile to rise that season, 
except the juniper, which lyes till the next : trans- 
plantthem the second year after they rise in Aprile; 
remove by a trowal, with earth at their roots, toping 
such roots as appear, without the clod, and lessen 
the head by thinning it. See what I have spoken 
about holly, for the same rules may be observed for 
these to be spread on walls ; but save the tops of 
standards : they all do well by suckers and layers 
also, except cypress and juniper. Be careful to 
defend your seedling greens, while young, from 
spring blastings ; yet do not choak them for want 
of good air. 

The pine, cypress, and ever-green oak (the last in 
especial), will scarce endure a removal from the 
seminary ; therefore sow them in drills, two foot 

153 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

interval one way, and half a foot the other; and the 
next year after they rise, make a spade-bit trench 
between the rowes, and work it cautiously, till you 
discover the running down root at one side, which 
you must top, with the pruning knife, and level in 
the earth as it was. Cut off some side boughes, and 
thin the head ; let them remain two years, then 
remove and plant them, as is instructed. 

Greens that are best worthy our esteem, are Scots- 
firr for standards, holly for hedges, the cherrie-bay 
for north aspect walls, or barren creeping ivy, which 
will neither blast nor seek supporting. 

There is strawberrie tree, and tree-nightshade, 
which are tender. But 

Indian and Spanish- jasmines, mirtles, oleanders, 
and orenge-trees are yet tenderer ; wherefore, I am 
not very curious of them ; yet there are severals 
in this countrey who have them, and are at great 
pains in governing them, by setting them in cases, 
with small stones, at the bottome filled with earth, 
as those mentioned for fine plants in Chap. II. 
Housing them in winter, between the latter end of 
September and beginning of May, giving them fresh 
earth as they retire, and expose them, i.e. take out 
the upper exhausted earth, stirring that below with 

154 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

a fork (not wounding the roots) and put in its place 
some rich and well consum'd soil, watering on all 
occasions with water wherein neat's-manure is 
steeped, not touching the leaves or stem therewith, 
whereof be sparing while they remain in the house, 
except after long frosts, in whose extremity is used 
a little charcoal, free of smoak, sunk a little in the 
floor ; and in warme dayes, free of frosts and fogs, 
acquaint them with the air, but shut them close up 
at night again ; and, when you may venture, expose 
them to the free air ; yet even then set them a week 
in the shade, having first brushed them from dust, 
&c. For my part, I had rather be in the woods, parks, 
orchards, kitchen-garden, or fields, measuring, 
planting, and improving the ground to the best ad- 
vantage. However, I will here take a little turne 
among the flowers. 

Of fibrous rooted flowers, 

July-flowers are the best, and are increased by 
off-sets, layers, slips and seeds. A light loamy 
earth well mixt with rotted soil of cows and sheep 
a year before-hand is most proper for them. 

Albeit I have raised many double, by seed of my 
own reaping, yet the surest way to preserve the best, 
is by laying, because seedlings are apt to dy after 

155 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

they have borne a flower. Plant out your layers at 
spring, and give these in pots fresh earth, as the 
orenge-tree, and yearly cleanse the old roots of 
withered, dead, and rotten leaves, and leave not 
above three or four spindles for flower (if choice) 
and nip off superfluous buds, lest they blow and 
bear themselves to death ; andif any burst, slit them 
as I directed with the double-yellow rose. At mid- 
summer, shade from afternoon's sun a little; these 
that blow support them against winds ; set hoofs 
among them for catching earwigs, their enemies ; 
water well in drought, sparing their leaves; pre- 
serve the choicest from too much raines, by laying 
the pots on their sides ; strick off the snow when it 
lyes too weightie on them; these you incline not to 
bear seed, cut their stalks as soon as past the flower. 

Raise stock-gelly-flowers by seeds or cuttings ; 
the seed of the single will produce double, but the 
more flowers and leaves the mother hath, the more 
double shall the product be: sow and plant them 
with carnations or July-flowers ; they affect the 
same soil with them. 

Prim-roses, cowslips, and bears-ears, by off-sets 
in spring, or when the flower is past, viz. in July; 
they affect a good natural earth, well mixt with 

156 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

rotten neat's-manure : the finer sorts love a little 
shade in summer. If in pots or cases, you may trans- 
port them to such at pleasure. 

Great varieties may be raised from seeds sowen 
in pots, the soil as aforesaid,mixtwith willow earth 
in October ; take heed of deep interring bears-ears, 
sow them as purslain ; set the pots and cases with 
them at the south side of a wall till Aprile,at which 
time they spring, and must be now retired a little 
as is said; transplant in July to flower next spring, 
and neglect not to earth up such as are apt to work 
. out of ground, namely bears-ears. 

There are many others, as, 

Noble liverwort, spring gentianella, virgines- 
bo wrs, etc, and are increased by off-sets in the spring, 
or by seeds at the same time ; as also columbins, 
holihocks, cransbill, campions and Constantinople 
flowers, catch flyes, pinks and sweet-williams, 
throat- worts and bell-flowers, &c. or daisies, violets, 
spidder-worts, double marsh mary-gold, may be 
raised by off-sets, any time when springing. 

Of bulbous and tuberous roots, there are, 

Tulipas of great varieties ; increase them by off- 
sets when their stalks wither, which is generally 
about June, July, or August; this is also the season 

157 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

for other bulbous and tuberous roots ; keep them in 
a cool, but dry place, till September or October, and 
then plant them in a light sandy earth, with fat 
soil, two or three inches below the bulb, so that the 
fibres of the bulbs may reach it : remove every three 
years, and of tener if they affect not the soil : they 
may be raised from seed, but it's tedious. 

Anemonies, the very same as tulips, except that 
they require a rich earth mixt with rotten manure, 
so that it be not rank. 

Apply this also to ranunculuses of the finest sorts. 

Cyclamin roots may be carefully parted in July, 
and set in the soil fit for tulips. 

Crocuses and colchicums as tulips ; but they re- 
quire a mixt, rich, light soil : and so with 

Irish bulboses, which love a dry, rich bed ; and so 
with narcissuses, ornithogalums, jacenths, hesons, 
aconites, hellibors, &c. 

Likewayes Irish-tuberosus, crown-imperial, and 
lilias of several sorts, peonies, cynosorches, &c. 

Indian-tuberose is tender. See Esq. Evelyn's kal- 
endar. 

There are many annuals may be sowen in pots, 
and plunged in hot-beds, and some under glass 
covers ; especially these sowen in autumn, as, 

158 



THE CULTURE OF PLANTS 

Amaranthus, marvel of Peru, flos Africanus, con- 
volvulus, &c. In Aprile you may sow them on the 
cold bed, if good, fat, warme earth, together with 
double mary-gold, cyanus, nigella, delphinium, an- 
tirrhinum, double garden and corne-poppies, fox- 
gloves, flos solis, flos-adonis, &c. 

But if you would be further satisfied in the 
varieties of flowers, consult the learned and most 
ingenious Mr James Sutherland's Catalogue, physic 
gard'ner at Edinburgh. 

I spoke before of preserving plants by housing. 
There are some that cannot endure the house, which 
must be set at the south-wall, the pots sunk two 
inches below the surface, covered with glass, first 
clothing them with sweet and dry moss : or in pre- 
pared boxed beds, with folding glass-frames to lift 
up and down at pleasure ; because in all season- 
able warme blinks of the sun and showres, they 
may be discovered of all that covers them; thus treat 
choice ranunculus, anemonies, amaranthus, &c. 
Neglect not to repair their earth, as in the orenge 
tree. 

Plants standing dry in winter, earthed up, or the 
earth made firme about them, are good means 
of preservation. Neglect not to cleanse all your 

159 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

plants of under and withered leaves, superfluous 
off-sets, &c. 

I hope the reader will excuse me for this brevity, 
seeing each chapter herein would merit a book ; 
neither will leisure permit me at present to enlarge. 




AN APPENDIX 

SHEWING 

HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF 
THE GARDEN 



11 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 
THIS necessarily depends upon the fifth and sixth 
chapters of Part II. of fruits and herbes eatable. 

Gather aples and pears when full ripe, especially 
those for keeping, or for cyder, in a dry day, clear, 
but not f rostie, in large baskets, lin'd with straw- 
mats, upon three footed or standing ladders; at least 
lay straw under, if you shake them, and suffer not 
too many at once therein. 

Gather apricocks, peaches, plumes, cherries, with 
your hands into clean baskets, when full ripe, 
whether for eating green, preserving in sugar, &c. 
drying, or for wines ; as also currans, barberries, 
rasberries, goosberries. The cucumbers for pick- 
ling must be small, i.e. ere their seeds grow firme ; 
and goosberries for baking, boyling, and sauces. 

Pull artichocks ere they grow too hard ; let these 
for pickling be the tenderest. Let the purslain for 
pickling be hard and old, lay it a day or two in the 
sun to mortifie ; that which you eat green must be 
tender. Eat beans and peas green, but do not slice 
down the beans, nor break the peas' stalks, else 
those left thereon cannot fill. You may cut off the 
beans with a knife ; and for the peas, hold with the 
one hand, and pull with the other. 

Gather asparagus when tender, i.e. about three, 
163 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

four, or five inches high. Lettice when young ; but 
it's best cabbaged. Succory, endive, sellery, blan- 
ched. Cresses, parsly, chervil, burnet, when young 
and tender. Sorrall, spinage, beets, before they 
shoot for seed ; and so are arage, marygold, bugloss, 
burrage, shallot, and onions when their stalks 
wither, tho'shibols are eaten green. Leeks anytime 
before they shoot to seed. Coleflowers when firme 
and white, ere they spoil ; and so cabbage when 
hard. Sweet herbes any time, either green or dryed; 
but gather them in their prime, when they are in 
flower, for drying. 

Liquorish is no dish but drink, see Part II. Chap. 
VI. where you will also find the season of scor- 
zonera, beetrave, carrot, turneep,skirret,parsneep, 
potatoes, &c. 

Besides what is said above of planting and sow- 
ing at spring, summer, and harvest ; (for some have 
a longer continuance) as also of raising some early er 
than naturally, by means of hot-beds, and what I 
might say of retarding others by transplantations, 
&c., there be wayes of preserving them out of the 
garden. 

Aples and pears may be carryed into the conser- 
vatory or store-house, in large baskets between two 

164 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 

men, which must be a close, but cleanly and whole- 
some room, floored, lyned, and siled with boards, 
and shelves, of the same all round ; let them sweat 
a little on the floor, with clean oat-straw under 
them ; then dry and lay them aple-thick on the 
shelves, opening the north windows, in fair, clear 
windy dayes, especially at first, that the air may 
dry up the superfluous moisture ; turne them some- 
times, and in frosts cover them with mats, and shut 
closs the house ; some of the choicest you may wrap 
in dry papers singly, and often visit, that you may 
remove any that begin to rot, for they quickly infect 
the rest. 

The way of preserving cherries, plums, &c. in 
wine, cyder, hony , or sugar is easie ; as also of drying 
them in the oven. 

And you may pickle barberries in vinegar and salt 
well dryed, and sugar; to each pound and half of 
fruit, a pound of salt cold, and one quarter of a pound 
of sugar, beaten to powder ; put them by layings in 
a well glazed ear then-pot, and when they have stood 
a whole week well-stopt, pour in a mutchken of 
vinegar to each pound of fruit: if you find the sawces 
too sharp, put as much sugar as salt. 

Range cucumbers the same way, and strew salt 
165 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

and vinegar till they be all covered, and you may 
add a little dill and sweet-bay leaves for odour, and 
cover them closs forty days unbroken; then pare 
when you serve them up. 

For artichocks, dissolve two large handfuls of 
great salt (that is, dryed on the fire in a pan) in one 
mutchken of vinegar, and three of fair water; mix 
them while the salt is yet hot, but put not the liquor 
on the fire; boyl the artichocks till the leaves come 
off easily, and while the cleansed stools are yet 
warme, you may have three nut-megs, three drops of 
cloves, one dram and half of mace, a quarter of an 
ounce of white pepper, half an ounce of cinnamon 
beaten to fine powder, and strew upon them; then 
pack them in the pot, with five or six spoonfuls of 
the liquor on each stratum; when all are potted, 
poure on the rest of the pickle, and stop close. 

To pickle them green, put to every pound of 
cleansed stools an ounce of salt dryed, and a quarter 
of an ounce of spices last nam'd, mixt in a mortar ; 
and having dawbed the stools full of holes, throw 
the powder thereon when the pot is full ; melt as 
much butter as covers them over two inches, and 
when cold, cover close with leather. 

To pickle beet-raves, boyl and put them in glazed 
166 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 

pots, with whole pepper and as much vinegar as 
covers them all over, stopping them close. 

Asparagus maybe parboyled and pickled as arti- 
chocks, and so may green peas with cods. 

Purslainas cucumbers; and so may taragon,sam- 
peir, broom-buds, &c. 

Lettice, endive, sellery, &c. by blanching and 
ranging among sand in cellars. Cabbage by hanging. 
Roots by housing, sanding, &c. as is shewed in 
Chap. VI. Sweet herbes as well as physical, by 
hanging to dry in some open room, not in the sun, 
as some advise. 

Put marygold-flowers in paper-bags near the 
chimney, till they pass hazard of mouldiness ; do 
just so with true saffron: but because fewknowhow 
to order it, observe to part its off-sets, and plant 
with other bulbs at half a foot distance in the beds 
or bordures in July; it flowers in September; then 
be careful to go through in the mornings, and gather 
the saffron, viz. the thrums that are in the middle 
of the flowers: it bears not well till the third, fourth 
and fifth year, then you must remove it. But to the 
matter in hand. 

As for the use of these fruits, the physicians know 
their medicinalls, the cook their ordering in the 

167 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

kitchen, and the gard'ner how to propagate and 
improve them. For description, and medicinal uses, 
see our countreyman Doctor Morison's herbal; and 
for mechanical uses, Evelyn's works. 

To have dishes and drinks of them, observe what 
followes. 

Of dishes, as of aples, you may have baked without 
any ingredients save sugar, roasted alone, also 
boyled,or fried by shavers, with a little fresh butter, 
stew'd betwixt two plates : having cleaved and taken 
out their cors, add a little sweet butter and sugar. 

Of pears, you may have them roasted and boyled 
as aples ; also stoved, being cut in f ower, and put 
dry in a stoup or oven of white iron, and so set in 
the pot among water to boyl ; you may have both 
aples and pears green with cheise. 

Cherries are excellent when baked, and so goos- 
berries ; apricocks, peaches, plumes, cherries, cur- 
rans, goosberries, rasberries, are all excellent dishes, 
green or conserved. Strawberries with red wine 
or sweet cream. 

Cucumbers pickled for sallad to roasted mutton ; 
or, if ripe, slice and lay them an hour in salt, and so 
powr off their water. Artichocks are either pickled 
or fresh, boyled and eaten with sweet beaten butter. 

168 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 

Beans and peas boyled with savory and thym- 
f agot, served up with sweet butter beat amongst 
them, and set on a coal or chaffing. 

Boy 1 asparagus in fair water, and serve it up with 
a little sweet butter, beat, i.e. tumbled in the sawse- 
pan above the coal. The young shoots of colworts 
will serve the same way. 

Purslain may be eaten green with sugar, and 
vinegar or oyl, stew'd with meat, besides pickled. 

Lettice, green as purslain; and so cresses, chervil, 
burnet, burrage-flowers, and wood-sorrall. 

Spinage is an excellent stove, being boyled with 
lamb or veall, with a little sorrall therein, as also 
chopped dishes thereof with butter. 

The same way use beets ; also make green broth 
of them with leeks, fagot of thyme, and parsley. 
In some stoves and broths you may put arage, 
marygold leaves, violet leaves, strawberrie leaves, 
bugloss, burrage and endive. In pottage put juice 
of sorrall, fagot of thime, and parsley; and in most 
of broths. 

In the sawce or gravy of rost-mutton and capon, 
and in all stewed dishes, bruise shallot, or rub the 
dishes therewith. 

You may stove leeks with a cock. Onions may 
169 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

be baked with a little butter if you want meat ; also 
make use of them with roast-meat, especially geese, 
and tomostfreshfishesinwhichparsley and thyme- 
fagot is mainly used. 

Boyl coleflowers in water mixt with a little milk; 
then po writ off, and mix in the stew-pan with sweet 
butter seasoned with salt, and so serve them up 
about boyled mutton. 

Boyl cabbage with beef, reserving the top of the 
pot to powr (when dished up) about the beef. 

Boyl scorzonera,peale off its brown rind, wherein 
consists its bitterness ; slice and fry it with butter. 

When skirrets are boyld and pealed, roll them in 
flowre, and fry them with butter. 

Boyl and peel parsneeps, chop and bruise them 
well, powre on butter, and set them on a coal, 
and, if you please, strew a little cinnamon upon 
them. 

Carrots are so used, or only dished by shavers. 

Beetraves are good when boyld, pealed, shaved, 
and when cold served up with vinegar and sugar, 
besides those pickled. 

Beetraves, parsneeps, carrots, are very good 
served up whole, or sliced about meat, also turneeps, 
with fat broth poured thereon. 

170 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 

Potatoes as parsneeps; or, for want of butter, 
take sweet milk. 

Of drinks, as of aples to make cyder ; I cannot 
name our cyder-aples, for I use to mix all the ripe 
at once in the orchard, that are of a fine juice, and 
easie to separate from the flesh, and pears that 
have plenty of juice, and hard flesh, though harsh. 

In France they extol the rennet cyder, in Eng- 
land the Heref ord-redstrake (which in France they 
set at nought) ; they speak of genetmoil and musts, 
some pipens and parmains; and for perry, the 
Bromsbury and ruddy horse-pear, all which and 
many more Hugh Wood gard'ner at Hamiltone has 
to sel. But now the different soils beget alterations 
in fruits, besides the climate ; yet both defects may be 
a little helped, the first by using all dilligence to pre- 
pare the ground thoroughly, as is directed in Chap. 
II. Fallowing is a most commendable essay. The 
second by grafting and regraffing early. Goodf ences 
and shelter round the ground are very conducible. 

To make this excellent wine, provide trough and 
beaters, press and harbag, lagallon, and tapering- 
fat, barrels and hogsheads (for even by the common 
screw press I have made a hogshead of cyder in a 
day). Be sure your vessels be sweet, else you spoil 

171 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

all : white-wine, sack-cask, or such as keept cyder 
before. I have heard of cyder-casks three inches 
thick in the staves, which I believe is of great ad- 
vantage in preserving the liquor ; but if any be 
tainted, put a little unslaked lyme-stone, and a 
little water in the barrel, and stop it close ; when 
it has stood a little while and jumbled, pour out and 
wash clean ; that will cure. 

The fruit being gathered ripe, as before, let them 
ly ten or twelve dayes, if summer-fruit ; and near 
the double of that time, if winter-sorts ; but late 
ripe fruit that get frosts is not good cyder : mix not 
with unripe ones, neither suffer leaves nor stalks 
among them. When they are small beat, put them 
in the harbag within the press-fat, and so screw 
them hard again and again ; then emptie it there- 
of and put in more, and do so as before : empty the 
receiver into the tapering-fat, and then cover it 
close with a canvass till the morrow at that time, 
before you tun it, that the gross lee may fall to the 
bottom ; then draw it off at a tap three inches from 
the bottom, leaving the dreg behind (the which 
may go among the pressings for water-cyder). The 
clearer you tun it into the barrels, the less it fer- 
ments, and that's the best cyder ; for often cyder 

172 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 

spends its strength to free it self of the grosser 
parts ; therefore, while your cyder ferments, leave 
the vent-pin loose, but keep close the bung for pre- 
serving the prodigall waste of its spirit ; and as 
soon as the working begins to allay, drive the vent- 
pin dead to ; and this will be perhaps in a fortnight, 
if it begins to work immediately ; sometimes not 
till the spring. But keep fast the pin till it begins 
to work ; and that you mind to bottle of it, do it 
as soon as fully clear and fine, which is ordinarily 
at spring. Put a plumb great of fine white loaf- 
sugar in each bottle; and above all, make your 
corks fast and close, then set your bottles in. the 
cellar amongst sand. 

To make the water-cyder, put a third as much 
water upon the new-pressed marce, to stand covered 
in tubs four or five dayes ; then press them, and 
boyl the liquor, scumming it till the scum cease to 
rise fast ; then take it off (for too much boyling 
wasteth its spirits) and put it in tubs or coolers, 
and when cold tun it up. When done working 
(which will not be so violent as best cyder), make 
the pin fast, and in a short time it's for drinking. 
A little ginger, cloves, juniper-berries, or such may 
be boy led in it, if they please your taste. 

173 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

The making of perry differs not from that of 
cyder. 

To make cherrie-wine, to every pound of ripe 
fruit stampt, put a chopin of spring-water, and a 
quarter of a pound of fine white sugar : boyl the 
water and sugar, scum it, and put in the juice of 
your cherries ; let it boyl up again, take it off the 
fire, run it through a hair-sive, and when 'tis 
thoroughly cold, put in a stone-pot, and after six 
or seven dayes, draw it into bottles, putting a bit of 
loaf-sugar in each ; in a quarter of a year you may 
falla-drinking: itwillkeepayear. If you would have 
it stronger, then use no more water than sugar. 

After the same manner you may make wine of 
rasps, currans, goosberries. Or, 

Take currans very ripe, bruise and strain them, 
and to every pint of the juice put a pound and a 
quarter of sugar into a stone or earthen-pot, scum 
it often, and at a week's end draw it off, and take 
out the settlings, and put in the liquor again ; do 
this till it be fine, then bottle it ; and at a week's 
end, if it be not fine in the bottles, shift it into other 
bottles. 

Gather your goosberries ere they be too ripe, 
and for every three pound of stampt fruit, use a 

174 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 
chopin of water, and a pound of sugar; steep them 
twenty four houres, then strain them; put the 
liquor into a vessel close stopt a fortnight or three 
weeks ; then draw it off if you find it fine, other- 
wayes suffer it longer ; and if not yet fine, rak it. 

It's usuall to make it thus unboyled, because it 
contracts a brown colour in boyling. 

To every pint of rasps add a pound of sugar ; let 
them stand two dayes in an earthen-pot, often stir- 
ring and bruising them : then put them in a woolen 
bag to hang up twenty four houres or more, till the 
liquor drop out into a stone-pot ; suffer it there 
till fermented and scum'd, and at a week's end (or 
sooner if fine) bottle it, and at another week's end 
shift it into fresh bottles, that you may leave the 
settlings behind ; thus shift them so long as you 
see any settlement, which you may put in a bottle 
by itself. 

Of some sorts of plumes, as damasons, &c. may 
be made wine. 

That called cherrie-brandy, is a bottle half full of 
geens, filled up with brandie, sometimes jumbled a 
little, and in a moneth's time is fit for drinking: or 
if you put the like quantity of goosberries instead of 
cherries, that will make the brandie very delicious. 

175 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

The cherries best for wine, are blackheart, and 
morella. I think the red geen most excellent. 

Of goosberries the great crystal, and of currans 
the great Dutch-red, also the red rasp are the 
best. 

To have ail of liquorish, slice it very small, and 
powr water on it when at boyl ; then cover it close 
till next day ; powr off this wort, and more hot 
water on to stand so long as to search it thoroughly; 
add your worts together, and boyl them with a little 
dry worm-wood, or Carduus benedictus : but the 
greatest difficulty is to barme it when cold, as wort 
of malt : yet the stronger you make it, the easier 
it will take. Or if you have the conveniency of 
settlings of good wort of malt to boyl with it, that 
will facilitate the work. 

To have good metheglin,take one part of clarified 
hony, and eight parts of pure water, and boyl well 
together in a copper vessel till the consumption of 
one half ; but while it boyls, take off the scum, and 
when done boyling, and it begins to cool, tun it up, 
and it will work of it self; as soon as done working, 
stop it very close. Some advise to bury it under 
ground three moneths, and that to make it lose 
both smell and taste of hony and wax, and taste 

176 



HOW TO USE THE FRUITS OF THE GARDEN 
very like wine. I use to add dry rosmary and sweet 
marjoram in boy ling : some barme it as ail, which I 
have practised effectually. 

To know what fruits and herbes to make choise 
of for our plantations : 

The French fruit succeeds not well with us ; in 
England are good aples ; but Holland excels for 
stone-fruit, especially peaches and cherries, and 
Scotland for pears. 

The best aple for the table, is the golden pepin ; 
we have also rennets, russets, &c. very good. And 
for the kitchen the codling, Lidingtown and Rubies, 
with hundreds for both. 

But the best pears for the table are English ber- 
gamot, swan-egg, red-pear, achans,&c. The wardens 
are good keepers and kitchen-fruit, and multitudes 
more. 

Of cherries, the Kentish and morella, &c. 

Of plumes, primordials, mussel, imperial, &c. 

The common and orenge apricocks, the Newing- 
ton and nutmeg peaches. (Peaches bear better with 
us than apricocks). 

The Portugall quince, and thin-shell'd walnut. 

Of goosberries, great white, great red, and great 
yellow. 

177 12 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

Of currans, the great red-Dutch, the white-Dutch, 
the great black. 

Of rasps, both white and red. 

The great red strawberrie, and the Virginian, 
which is more early. 

Of artichocks, the great green and the red. 

Great white beans, and white-kidnees ; of peas, 
barnees, hotspures, hasties, and the sickle-peas, &c. 

If you can get Hordium nudum, i.e. naked barley, 
and sow as I directed with peas,it yields an incredible 
increase. 

The Dutch asparagus and cabbage lettice. The 
sorrall that usually shoots, not for stoves, &c. The 
white beet, and smooth spinage. Curled parsley 
and cresses, shallot and roccumbol, French leeks, 
and Straws-burgh onions. 

Candy coleflower, and our own great Scots white 
cabbage. 

Crisp tansie, and curled spearmint, sweet fennel, 
and common rosmary, sweet marjoram, and red 
sage. 

The black scorzorena and orenge carrot: the 
small round smooth turneep ; smooth Dutch pars- 
neep, and small radish, clear as chrystall. 



178 



THE CONCLUSION 

PROPOSING SCOTLAND'S IMPROVEMENT 
THERE is no way under the sun so probable for 
improving our land as inclosing and planting the 
same. Therefore I wish it were effectually put in 
practice. 

FINIS 



THE 

GARD'NERS KALENDAR 

SHEWING THE MOST SEASONABLE TIMES 
FOR PERFORMING HIS 

HORTULAN AFFAIRS 

MONTHLY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR I 



A CATALOGUE OF SUCH DISHES AND 
DRINKS AS A COMPLEAT GARDEN 
CAN AFFORD IN THEIR SEASONS 



BY JOHN REID, GARD'NER 



Reader, 

As in this little kalendar thou wilt find when; so in 
my book (intituled The Scots Gard'ner) thou wilt 
find how, to perform the particulars. The gardners 
year is a circle as their labour, never at an end. 
Nevertheless their terme is. 



THE GARDENERS KALENDAR 



NOVEMBER 

Contrive or f orcast where, and what you are to 
sow and plant. Trench and fallow all your vacant 
grounds. Prepare and mix soils and composts 
thoroughly; miss not high- way earth, cleanings of 
streets; make compositions of manures, soils, and 
lyme. 

Lay bair roots of trees that need, and manure 
such as require it. Plant all fruit-trees, forrest- trees, 
and shrubs that lose the leaf, also prune such. Plant 
cabbage, sow hasties for early peas in warme 
grounds, but trust not to them. 

Gather the seeds of holly, yew, ash, &c., ordering 
them as in Chap. III. Furnish your nurseries with 
stocks. 

Shelter tender evergreen seedlings. House your 
cabbage, carrots, turneeps : and at any time ere hard 
frosts house your skirrets, potatoes, parsneeps, &c. 
Cover asparagus, artichocks, as in the last moneth. 
Sow bairs-ears, plant tulips, &c. Shut the con- 
servatory. Preserve your choisest flowers. Sweep 
and cleanse the walks of leaves, &c. Stop your bees 
close so that you leave breathing vents. 

183 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in season, are 
cabbage, coleflower, onions, leeks, shallot, &c. 
Blanched sellery, succory, pickled asparagus, pur- 
slain, &c. French parsneeps, skirrets, potatoes, 
carrots, turneeps, beet-rave, scorzonera, parsley 
and f ennell roots, aples, pears, &c. 

Cyder, perry, wine of cherries, rasps, currans, 
goosberries, liquorish, hony, &c. 

DECEMBER 

Trench and prepare grounds. Gather together 
composts; plant trees in nurseries, and sow their 
seeds that endure it. 

Gather firr seed, holly berries, &c. Take up liquor- 
ish. Continue your care in preserving choice carna- 
tions, anemonies, and ranunculuses from raines and 
frosts. And keep the green-house close against the 
piercing colds. Turne and refresh your fruit in a 
clear serene day. Sharpen and mend tools. Gather 
oziers and hassell rods and make baskets in stormy 
weather. Cover your water pipes with leitter lest 
the frosts do crak them ; feed weak bees. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 
Colworts, leeks, &c., housed cabbage, onions, 
184 



THE GARDENERS KALENDAR 

shallot. Several dryed sweet herbes. Housed pars- 
neeps, turneeps, skirrets, carrots, potatoes, beet- 
rave, scorzonera ; parsley and fennel roots. Pickled 
cucumbers, barberries, artichocks, asparagus, pur- 
slain, &c. 

Housed aples, pears. Conserved cherries, plumes, 
peaches, apricocks, &c. 

Wine of aples, pears,cherries, liquorish, honey, &c. 

JANUARY 

Prepare the grounds, soils and manures. Fell 
trees for mechanical uses. Prune firrs, plant haw- 
thorn hedges, and all trees and shrubs that lose the 
leaf if open weather. Also prune the more hardie 
and old-planted. Manure the roots of trees that 
need. Drain excessive moisture; gather graffs ere 
they sprout, and near the end graff. Begin with the 
stone fruits. Gather holly berries, firr husks, &c. 
Secure choice plants as yet from cold and wet, and 
earth up such as the frosts uncovered. 

Feed weak bees, also you may remove them. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 

Colworts, leeks, &c. Dry sweet herbes, housed 
cabbage, onions, shallot, parsneeps, skirrets, pota- 

185 



THE SCOTS GARD'NER 

toes, carrots, turneeps, beet-rave, scorzonera, pars- 
ley and fennel roots in broth. 

Pickled artichocks, beet-raves, &c. Housed aples, 
pears, and other conserved fruits. 

Cyder and other wines as before. 

FEBRUARY 

Plant any trees or shrubs that lose the leaf, also 
lay such for increase; see June. Likewayes sow all 
your seeds, kyes, kirnells, nuts, stones; also the seeds 
of several greens, as holly, yew, philyrea, laurells, 
&c. Prune firrs, &c. 

Continue to destroy vermine. 

Grafting is now in season, see the last moneth. 

Prune all trees and shrubs except tender greens. 
Nail and dress them at the wall. Cover the roots of 
trees layed bair the fore-end of winter, if any be. 
Plant hawthorn hedges, willows, &c. 

Plant liquorish, potatoes, peas, beans, cabbage, 
sow parsley, beets, spinage, marygold, and other 
hardie pot-herbes. 

Let carnations and such sheltered flowers get air 
in mild weather. But keep close the green-house. 

Now you may remove bees and feed weak stocks. 

186 



THE GARDENERS KALENDAR 

Garden Dishes, <&c. 

Cole, leiks, sweet herbes, onions, shallot, housed 
cabbage, skirrets, turneeps, parsneeps, potatoes, 
beet-rave, scorzonera, carrots, besides parsley and 
fennel roots. 

Pickled beet-rave, artichock, cucumber; housed 
aples, pears, and other conserved fruits with cyder 
and other wines and drinks, as above. 

MARCH 

Re-delve, mix, and rake your ground for imme- 
diate use. Delve about the roots of all your trees. 
Yet plant trees and rather greens. Also prune such 
except resinous. Propagate by laying, circum- 
position, and especially by cuttings. Sow the seeds 
of most trees and hardie greens. Cover those trees 
whose roots lay bair and delve down the manures 
that lay about your young trees all winter, cover ing 
on leitter again topt with earth to prevent drought 
in summer : this is a material observation and more 
especially for such as are late planted. Slit the 
bark of ill- thriving trees. Fell such as grow croked 
in the nurserie. Graffing is yet in season (but too 
late for stone fruit), cut off the heads of them in- 
oculated. 

187 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

Set peas, beans, cabbage, asparagus, liquorish. 
Sow parsley, beets, endive, succory, bugloss, burr- 
age, sellery, fennell, marigold. Plant shallot, gar- 
leeks, potatoes, skirr ets. Sow onions, lettice, cresses, 
parsneep, beet-rave, radish, &c. And on the hot- 
bed coleflower, and if you please, cucumber, &c. 

Slip and set physick herbes, July-flowers, and 
other fibrous-rooted flowers. Be careful of the 
tender plants ; the piercing colds are now on foot. 
Turne your fruit in the room but open not yet the 
windows. 

Catch moles, mice, snails, worms, destroy frogs' 
spawn, &c. 

Half open passages for bees, they begin to flit ; 
keep them close night and morning : yet you may 
remove them. 

Garden Dishes, &c. 

Both green and housed herbes and roots : also 
pickled, housed, and conserved fruits, with their 
wines as in the former months. 

APRILS 

Plant holly hedges and hawthorn too, if not too 
f oreward. Ply and sheer hedges. Nail and prune 

188 



THE GARDENERS KALENDAR 

wall-trees, &c. Sow and plant firrs, and other 
greens. Slip and set sage, rosemary, thym, rue, 
savory, and all fibrous rooted herbes and flowers 
Uncover and dress strawberries. Plant artichocks, 
slip them and delve their plottes. Set cabbages, 
beans, peas, kidnees. Sow asparagus, parsley, beets, 
and beet-card. Set garleeks, shallot, potatoes, 
skirrets, sorral. Sow onions, leeks, lettice, cresses, 
radish, orach, scorzonera, carvy, fennel, &c. And 
on the hot-bed, cucumbers, coleflowers, purslain, 
sweet mar jorum, basill, summer savory, tobaco,&c. 

Set strawberries, violets, July-flowers, &c. Also 
sow the seeds of July-flowers, &c. Sow all your 
annuall flowers and rare plants, some requiring 
the hot-bed. Lay, beat, and roll gravel and grass. 
Fall to your mowing and weeding. 

Destroy moles, mice, worms, and snails. 

Open the doors off your bee-hives, now they 
hatch. 

Garden Dishes, (Sec. 

Onions, leeks, colworts, beets, parsley, and other 
herbes : spinage, sorral, scorzonera ; green aspara- 
gus, lettice, and other sallads. Pickled artichocks, 
beet-rave, barberries, cucumbers. 

Housed aples and pears, conserved cherries, 
189 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

plumes, peaches, apricocks, goosberries, currans. 
Also wines of aples, pears, cherries, liquorish, 
hony, &c. 

MAY 

Pull up suckers and haw about the trees. Rub off 
unnecessary buds. Sheer or clip hedges. Prune 
tender greens (not the resinous), bring furth the 
housed ones refreshing and trimming them. Plant 
all sorts of medicinal herbes. Sow all sweet ones 
which are tender. 

Gather snails, worms, and catch moles. 

Sow lettice, cresses, purslain, turneep, radish, 
peas, &c. Continue weeding and watering. 

Near the end watch the bees ready to swarm. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 
Coleworts and other herbes, (being eaten with 
contentement are better than a fatted ox without 
it), sage (with butter), leeks, parsley, thyme, mar- 
jorum, sorrall, spinage, &c. Scorzonera, asparagus, 
lettice, purslain, and other sallades and pot-herbes. 
Pickled artichocks, barberries, beet-rave, cucum- 
bers, housed aples and pears for many uses. Early 
cherries, strawberries, near the end. 
Cyder, metheglin, liquorish ail, &c. 
190 



THE GARD'NERS KALENDAR 

JUNE 

Cleanse about the roots of trees, suckers, and 
weeds ; water their covered bulks, especially the 
new planted. 

Fell the long small ill-train'd f orrest-trees in the 
nurserie, within half a foot of the ground. Unbind 
graffs. Prune all wall and standard trees. To- 
wards the end you may inoculate and also increase 
by circumposition. 

Gather elm seed and sow immediately. Trans- 
plant coleflowers, coleworts, beets, leeks, purslain, 
&c.,in moist weather ; at least water first the ground 
if dry. 

Sow peas, radish, turneep,lettice, chervil, cresses, 
&c. 

Destroy snails, worms, &c. 

Begin to lay carnations or July-flowers ; shade, 
support and prune such as will blow. Water the 
pots and thirsty-plants. Weeding and mowing is 
in season, and so is distillation. 

Bees now swarm, look diligently to them. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 
Cole, beets, parsley,sorrall and other pot-herbes. 
Purslain, lettice, and other sallads. Radish, scor- 

191 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

zonera,asparagus, green peas and artichocks. Green 
goosberries. Ripe cherries, rasps, currans, straw- 
berries. 

Housed aples and pears. 

Cyder, metheglin, &c. 

JULY 

Fallow ground as soon as the crop conies off. 
Prune and purge all standard trees. Ply, nail, 
prune, and dress your wall-trees. Pull up suckers 
and weeds. Haw and water where needful. In- 
oculate fruit-trees, shrubs, rare greens, and flower- 
trees; increase the same by laying. Clip your 
hedges after rain. Suffer such herbes and flowers 
to run to seed as you would save, cutting the rest 
a handful from the ground. 

Sow turneep, radish, lettice, onion, cole-flower, 
cabbage, and coleworts in the full moon. Near 
the end sow beets, spinage, &c. You may plant 
strawberries, violets, camomile. Lay July-flowers. 
Plant their seedlings. Slip andsethypaticas, bears- 
ears, couslips, helibors, &c. Take up bulbous and 
tuberous ones that are dry in their stalks (if you 
mind to change their places)and keep till September, 
but some should be set immediately. 

192 



THE GARDENERS KALENDAR 
Supply voids with potted annualls. Lay grass 

and gravell. Make cherrie and rasberrie wine, &c. 
Prevent the bees' later swarms. Kill drons, 

wasps, &c. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 

Beets and many pot-herbes and sweet herbes. 

Beet-card, purslain, lettice, endive, &c. 

Cabbage, cole-flower, scorzonera, beet-rave, 
carrot, radish, turneep, peas, beans, and kidnees, 
artichocks, strawberries, rasps, currans, goos- 
berries, cherries, plumes, summer pears and aples. 

Cyder, metheglin, and other wines. 

AUGUST 

Fallow bordures, beds, nurseries, and the bulks 
of trees. Yet inoculate. Ply and purge trees. Pull 
up suckers and weeds. Clip hedges. Gather the 
stones of black cherrie and morella. Gather 
mezerion berries. Gather the seeds of most herbes 
and flowers. Cut your physick herbes. In the be- 
ginning sow cabbage (tho' I confess it's too late. 
See last moneth). Beets and beet-card, spinage, 
black-radish, chervil, lettice, corn-sallade, endive, 
scorzonera, carvy, marygold, angelica, scurvy- 
grass, &c. Take up ripe onions, garleeks, and 

193 13 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

shallot. Unbind buds inoculated. Cut and string 
strawberries. Lay July-flowers. Sow columbines, 
holyhoks, larks-heels, candy tuffs, popies, and such 
as can endure winter. 

Take up your bulbs and plant as in the last. Sift 
the ground for tulips and gladiolus. Plunge in 
potted annualls in vacants. Keep down weeds by 
hawing. Lay grass, beat, roll, and mow well. 
Make goosberrie and curran wine. 

Towards the end take bees, take the lightest first ; 
those that are near heaths may differ a little. 
Destroy wasps, straiten the passage by putting on 
the hecks to secure from robers. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 
Many pot-herbes and sallades, cabbage, cole- 
flower, beet-card, turneep, radish, carrot, beet-rave, 
scorzonera, peas, beans, and kidnees, artichocks, 
cucumbers, aples, pears, plumes, apricocks, geens, 
goosberries, currans, rasps, strawberries, &c. 

Cyder, metheglin, cherrie wine, curran wine, 
goosberrie wine, raspberrie wine, &c. 

SEPTEMBER 

Fallow, trench, and level ground. Prepare pits 
and bordures for trees. Gather plane seed, also 

194 



THE GARD'NERS KALENDAR 

almond, peach, and white plum stones. Gather ripe 
fruits. Plant f urth cabbage. Remove bulbs and 
plant them. Refresh, trame, and house your tender 
greens. Refresh and trim pots and cases with July- 
flowers and other fine flowers and plants ; carrying 
them to pits, shelter and covert, giving them air. 

Towards the end gather saffron. 

Make cyder, perry, and other wines. 

Straiten the entrance to bee-hives, destroy 
wasps, &c. 

Also you may now remove bees. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 
Varieties of pot-herbes and sallades, cabbage, 
cole-flower, peas, beans, and kidnees, artichocks, 
beet-card, beet-rave, scorzonera, carrots, turneeps, 
radish, cucumbers, aples, pears, apricocks, peaches, 
nectarines, quince, grapes, barberries, filbeards. 

Cyder, liquorish ail, metheglin, and wine of 
cherries, rasps, goosberries, currans, &c. 

OCTOBER 

Gather winter fruits. Trench and fallow grounds 
(mixing with proper soil) to ly over the winter. 
Prepare manures, mixing and laying in heaps bot- 
tom'd and covered with earth. Plant hawthorn 

195 



THE SCOTS GARDENER 

hedges, and all trees that lose their leaves. Also lay 
their branches. Prune roses. Gather seeds of hassell, 
hawthorn, plan, ash, beach, oak, aple, pear, &c. Cut 
strawberries, artichocks, asparagus, covering their 
beds with manure and ashes. Earth up winter 
sallades,herbesandflowers, alittle. Plantcabbage, 
tulips, anemonies and other bulbs. Sow the seed of 
bair s-ear s, cowslips, tulips, &c. Beat and roll gravel 
and grass. Finish your last weeding and mowing. 
Lay bair leoper ed tree roots and remove what harms 
them ; also delve and manure such as require it. 
Drain excessive moisture wherever it be. Pickle 
and conserve fruits. Make perry and cyder. 
You may now safely remove bees. 

Garden Dishes and Drinks in Season 
Coleworts, leeks, cabbage, coleflowers, onions, 

shallot, beans. Blanched endive and sellery. Pickled 

asparagus, purslain, &c. 
Scorzonera, beet-rave, carrots, turneeps, pars- 

neeps, potatoes, skirrets, artichocks, cucumbers, 

aples, pears, plumes, almond, &c. 
Cyder, perry, and wine of cherries, currans, goos- 

berries, rasberries, ail of liquorish, metheglin, &c. 

FINIS 



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